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Preface ix

Acknowledgments xi

Chapter 1. Agrometeorology: Perspectives and Applications 1

Definition 1

A Holistic Science 1

Scope 2

Practical Utility 3

Chronology of Developments 5

Future Needs 8

Chapter 2. Solar Radiation and Its Role in Plant Growth 13

The Sun: The Source of Energy 13

Nature and Laws of Radiation 16

Earth's Annual Global Mean Radiative Energy Budget 18

Solar Radiation and Crop Plants 25

Solar Radiation Interception by Plants 30

Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) 36

Solar Radiation Use Efficiency 38

Chapter 3. Environmental Temperature and Crop

Production 43

Soil Temperature 43

Air Temperature 47

Plant Injury Due to Sudden Changes in Temperature 50

Frost: Damage and Control 55

Thermoperiodism 64 Temperature As a Measure of Plant Growth and Development 66

Chapter 4. Climatological Methods for Managing Farm

Water Resources 69

Water for Crop Production 69

Making Effective Use of Rainfall 70

Evaporation and Evapotranspiration 76

Water Use and Loss in Irrigation 84

Climatological Information in Improving

Water-Use Efficiency (WUE) 85

Reducing Water Losses from Reservoirs 91

Chapter 5. Drought Monitoring and Planning for Mitigation 95

Definition of Drought 96

Meteorological Indicators of Drought 96

Drought Monitoring in Australia 105

Drought Exceptional Circumstances 108

Overview of Drought Assessment Methods 113

Meeting the Challenge: A Drought Mitigation Plan 115

Desertification 119

Chapter 6. Climate, Crop Pests, and Parasites of Animals 123

Role of Weather and Climate 123

Some Important Insect Pests of Crop Plants 130

Climate and Parasites of Animals 136

Helminth Parasites 136

Arthropod Parasites 138

Chapter 7. Remote-Sensing Applications in Agrometeorology 145

Spatial Information and the Environment 145

Remote Sensing 146

Remote Sensors and Instruments 149

Image Acquisition 152

Satellite Orbits for Remote Sensing 158

Geographic Information System (GIS) 159

Global Positioning System (GPS) 160

Remote-Sensing Applications 161

Chapter 8. Role of Computer Models in Managing

Agricultural Systems 179

Modeling Biological Response to Weather Conditions 179

Models 180

Applications of Crop Models 182 Simulation Models Relevant to Australian Farming

Systems 187

Decision Support Systems (DSS) 187

Chapter 9. Agroclimatological Services 209

Weather and Agriculture 209

Weather and Climate Forecasting 209

Tailoring Climate Information for Agriculture 211 Impacts of Weather on Specific Industries and the Role of Forecast Information 212

Agroclimatological Information Services in Australia 214

Use and Benefits of Climate Forecast Information 217 Toward Optimum Utilization of Climate Information and Forecast Products 220

Chapter 10. Using Climate Information to Improve

Agricultural Systems 237

Setting the Platform—Property Planning 238 Sustainable Production—Setting the Enterprise Mix and Production Levels 240

Making Efficient Use of Rainfall 242

Developing Resilience 252

Managing the Extremes—Droughts and Floods 254 The Decision-Making Process—Dealing with Risk and Complexity 256

Providing Climate Technology to Farmers 256 Communicating New Ideas and Practices—

Creating Change Through Adult Learning 258

Chapter 11. Climate Change and Its Impact on Agriculture 263

Climate Variability and Climate Change 263 Observed Change in Atmospheric Composition and Climate 267

Observed Impact of Climate Change 272

Future Scenarios of Climate Change 275 Impact of Climate Change on Hydrology and Water

Resources 277

Impact of Climate Change on Crops 282

Impact of Climate Change on Livestock 286

References 291

Author Index 339

Subject Index 351

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Renewable Energy Eco Friendly

Renewable Energy Eco Friendly

Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable.

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