Aviris 158

Bactrocera tryoni 125, 135-136 barn itch 143-144 bean weevils 129 Beer's law 33

Bhalme and Mooley Drought Index

(BMDI) 102, 102t biodiversity 119-120, 239, 253 biological control of seepage 93 biomass production. See crop production biometeorology 1 bioplastic 93 black body radiation 16 black cone-headed grasshopper 133 Blaney and Criddle method for irrigation scheduling 6 blowflies 139

blue light, effect on plants 29 bluetongue infection 128, 140-141 BMDI 102, 102t Bovicola ovis 141-142 breeding crops, simulation models 182-183

Britain, decision support systems in 205

brushing for frost control 59 Bureau of Meteorology (AUS) 214, 252

long-term forecasts 210-211 rainfall rankings 99 Research Centre 162 bushfires 165-168

Canada, early sowing in 44. See also

North America canal irrigation 84 cane toads, modelling spread of

201-204 canopy cover. See screening carbon dioxide 22, 264, 267 cardinal temperatures 46-47 cassava, soil temperature and germination 44, 45f castor beans, conversion coefficient 41 cattle. See livestock Ceratopogonidae 140 Ceratovacuna silvestrii 130 cereal crops 86f, 131 CFCs 268

Chabertina ovina 137 checker-spot butterfly 274 chemicals frost control with 60 petrochemicals 88 plumes attract insect pests 129 to reduce seepage 92 remote sensing of 145 chilling injury to plants 53-54 China cotton bollworms in 134 global warming effects 283 soil water management 89 chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) 268 chlorophyll 26-27, 157 Chorthippus brunneus 132-133 Chortoicetes terminifera 125, 128 chromosphere 14 CIMSS 171 Cinara atrotibialis 130 Class A pans for measuring evaporation 79-81

Clermont (QLD), crop rotation 242f climate change 209. See also global warming effect on aphids 131 future scenarios 275-276 impact assessment 8, 10, 185,

263-289 modelling effects of 201-204 risk management workshops 216 seasonal forecasts 222 climate forecasts. See forecasts climatological management data archives for 8-9 of pests and diseases 123-144,

135-136 of water use 69-93, 85-90 CLIMEX model 201-204 clouds block remote sensors 149 effect on aphids 131 light scattered by 148 radiation reflected by 20 CMI 105, 106t

Cobar (NSW), MetAccess model

197-199, 198f, 199f cold. See chilling injury; frost damage and control colloidal materials 93 color 19t, 148. See also spectral bands Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) 90, 162

comprehensive models 181 computer modelling. See modelling computers for data analysis 9, 207 constraints inventories, during drought 117

controlled climates 6 conversion coefficients for solar radiation 38-41 Cooperative Institute for

Meteorological Satellite Studies (Wisconsin) 171 core of the sun 13 corona 14-15 corpuscles (solar) 14 cotton bollworms 134-135 cotton crops air temperature and 48 aphids in 130-131 chilling injuries 53 heat stress injuries 52-53 insect pests 134-135 soil water management 89 cowpea, chilling injury 53 cranberries, frost control 171-172 CRAS-ALEX 171 Crop Moisture Index 105, 106t crop pests and diseases. See pests and diseases crop production. See also agricultural production archives of data on 8 area used for 247-248 benefits of screening 240f breeding simulation models

182-183 cardinal temperatures for germination 47t fallowing 243-244, 253 forecasts needed for 217 global warming effects 282-286 injury from frost 56 injury from temperature changes

50-55 insect pests 130-136 intercepted radiation and 39, 39t rainfed crops 88 remote sensing of 169 residues from 245 rotational 183, 242f, 243f simulation models 112, 179-180, 182-186

solar radiation and 25-30, 38-41 temperature and 43-68 water required for 69-70 water use efficiency 246t weather effects on 2, 5, 212 cryosphere 265 CSIRO 90, 162 Culicoides spp. 127, 140-141 cultivars 58, 241 cuticular transpiration 76

day length 26, 65, 129 DECI 110-111

decile method of rainfall ranking 99,

99t decision support systems (DSS) climate information for 237-261 forecasts needed for 225t-235t,

249-252 modelling in 183-185, 187-207,

191t-194t from remote sensing 170 software for 259 deficit irrigation 90 defoliator grasshoppers 126-127 DEMs 159

dependable rains 100 desert locusts 128 desertification 119-121 dessication from frozen soil 53 diffuse reflection 147 digital elevation models 159 DigitalGlobe 154 Dirofiliaria immitis 140 diseases. See pests and diseases diversity 119-120, 239, 253 DM 104-105 dog ticks 143 double cropping 251 downscaling forecasts 221-222 drainage lysimeters 74 drought 95-121

bluetongue infection and 141 costs of 95 from frozen soil 53 grasshoppers affected by 133 management of 254-255 monitoring 161-164 property planning and 239 thresholds for 98t dry matter production. See crop production dryland farming 131, 219 DSS. See decision support systems Dubbo (NSW) 200, 201f dynamic simulation models 181-182

E-RAIN model 75-76 earth albedo of 16

radiative energy budget 13, 18-25 earth satellites. See satellites for remote sensing education and training 10-11 for agricultural producers 259 during drought 118 effective heat units 66-68 El NiƱo events. See Southern

Oscillation Index electromagnetic radiation, remote sensing 145-147, 173f elm bark beetle 124 energy balance 5-6, 19t Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus 154 ENSO. See Southern Oscillation Index environment, remote sensing of 7, 145 Environment Protection Australia

(EPA) 201-204 environmental degradation 119-121,

237, 240-241, 245 environmental management 9-10 Environmental Resource Information Network (ERIN) 165, 168 environmental temperature. See temperature Epiphyas postvittana 125 ERIN 165, 168 ethephon, for frost control 60 Eudocima salaminia 125 Europe chances of 198f, 199f evaporation 76, 79-84 global warming effects 280-281,

285, 288 lengthening growing season 274 long-term temperature changes

269-271 precipitation changes 272 of rainfall 70 from reservoirs 91-92 evaporation/precipitation ratio method 72

evapotranspiration 77-84 extended forecasts. See long-term forecasts; seasonal forecasts extension process, limitations of 257-258

faculae 15

fallowing 243-244, 253 FAO-24 methods for measuring evaporation 81-84 FAO CROPWAT program 83, 86-87 farmers. See agricultural producers farming. See agricultural production FARMWEATHER forecasts 214 firebreaks 254 fires 165-168 flexible cropping 248-249 flies 138-139 floating pans 80 flocculi 15

flood management 166, 255-256 flowering 26, 29

flukes 138

fodder, sustainable land use and 253 foliar disease management 172 forecasts. See also seasonal forecasts; short-term forecasts agricultural 4, 7-8, 211-212, 213f decision support from 225t-235t,

249-252 downscaling 221-222 frosts 62-64 long-term 210 modelling in 184-186 types of 209-211 use and benefits 217-220 users' expectations 223-224 water use efficiency and 87 freezing. See frost damage and control frost damage and control 48, 54-64,

57t, 63t, 171-172 fruit crops agricultural forecasts 215 chilling and freezing injury 54 heat stress on 52 fruit flies 135-136 future needs for agrometeorology 8

gamma rays, effect on plants 29-30 GDDs 66-68

general circulation models (GCMs) 185

global warming projections 275 seasonal forecasts 210-211 geographic information systems

159-160, 186 Geostationary Operational

Environment Satellites (GEOES) 171 germination of seeds cardinal temperatures for 47t soil temperature and 44-45 spectral bands and 29 temperature fluctuations and 65 GISs 159-160, 186 glaciers, shrinkage of 273 global positioning systems 160-161 global warming 8, 269-274, 270f, 277-282, 277f. See also climate change; greenhouse gases

Glossina spp. 139 GOES 171

government policy during drought

116-119 GPSs 160-161

grapes, temperature effects 241

GRASP model 111

grass growth 111-112. See also rangelands GrassGro simulation model 112 grasshoppers, temperature effects

132-133 grazing, sustainable 241, 253 green light, effect on plants 29 greenhouse gases 8, 263-264. See also global warming groundcover, reduces water loss 245 groundnuts. See peanuts groundwater 69, 121 growing degree-days 66-68 growth regulators, for frost control 60 growth units 66-68 gypsy moths 129

haemonchosis 136 Haemonchus contortus 137 Hammada elegans 74-75 Hargreaves method of measuring evapotranspiration 81

haze 148

heat stress injury to plants 51-52

heat units 66-68

heaters for frost control 61-62

heaving by frozen soil 53

Heliothis spp. 135

helminth parasites 136-138

Hillston (NSW), MetAccess model

199-200, 200f history of agrometeorology 5-8 holistic science 1-2 horse flies 139 horse sickness 140-141 houseflies 139

human resources for agrometeorology 223

humidity, effects on pest insects 126,

134-135, 142 Hydrogrow 400 88 hydrological drought 96, 98t hydrology 273, 277-282 hyperspectral sensing 154-157, 175f

IKONOS satellite 154 illumination geometry 152 image acquisition 152-158 impact assessment committees for drought 117 incident radiation 18-25, 21f, 21t India aphids in 130 cotton bollworms in 135 definition of drought 97-98 global warming effects 283 integrated watershed development 89

locusts in 134 monsoon forecasts 72 remote sensing satellites 154 infrared thermometry 7 insects 64, 123-126. See also pests and diseases instruments for remote sensing 148-152

integrated pest management (IPM) 185 integrated watershed development 89 interaction processes, remote sensing

147-148 intercepted radiation 31 intercepted rainfall 74 interdisciplinary nature of agrometeorology 1-2 International Society of

Biometeorology 1

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