Worldwide dairy production trends 1421 Milk production

Global milk production continues to increase at over 1% each year, reaching 514 MT in 2004 (see Table 14.1). Within these figures the trends differ between regions, as some of the dominant producers are losing market share to new players, with the most rapidly increasing production occurring in Asia (OECD 2004).

Europe (EU-25) is the dominant milk-producing area with 143 MT or 23% of total world milk supplies in 2004 (Table 14.1). In recent years milk production in the EU has been starting to lose world market share. This can be attributed to the Uruguay Round Agreement on Agriculture, which imposed quota restraints on milk production and limitations on subsidised exports.

The second major milk-producing nation is India with 88 MT of world milk supplies, of which 47 MT is buffalo milk. India is showing a steady growth in milk production up from 12.8% to 14% of the world milk supplies, overtaking the United States in 2000. India is self-sufficient in dairy products and is now starting to participate in world export markets (Cox & Youg Zhu 2003).

Milk production in the United States appears to have plateaued; reaching 77 MT in 2004, its world share has reduced from 12.8% to 12.3% in the 6 years to 2004. This reflects changes in production patterns in the rest of the world more than changes in the United States. The most significant change in recent years has been the rapid increase in milk production in China, which has tripled its milk production in the 6 years to 2004 to 19 MT. This increase can be attributed to changing diets of urban residents of China; associated with increasing income and awareness of the health benefits of milk, especially for the young and the elderly, and also to dairy product marketing (Fuller et al. 2005). China has introduced a national school milk programme and is expanding local production to meet demand.

There has also been a 50% increase in milk production in New Zealand, where much of the increased production has been sold as exports. New Zealand dairy production is based on grazing with very low production costs with about 97% of milk destined for the export market, principally as dried dairy products and cheese. Despite New Zealand's share of world milk output being less than 3%, its share of world trade is more than 30%. Similarly, Australia, with less than 2% of world milk production, supplies about 20% of global dairy trade (OECD 2004). Two of the least-populous nations, who produce less than 5% of the world supply, account for half of

Table 14.1 Worldwide milk production 1998-2004. Data from IDF-FIL (2004)

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Table 14.1 Worldwide milk production 1998-2004. Data from IDF-FIL (2004)

Country

Worldwide milk production ('000 tonnes)

Percentage of world production

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004*

1998

2004

European Union-25

144 327

144 434

143 005

143 685

143 741

144 217

142 865

25.9

22.8

India

71 300

74 600

76 490

79 490

81 855

84 380

88 000

12.8

14.1

United States

71 373

73 807

76 004

75 068

77 139

77 252

77 220

12.8

12.3

Russia

33 197

32 274

31 938

33 000

33 467

33 300

33 000

6.0

5.3

Brazil

21 630

21 700

22 134

22 580

22 635

23 000

23 500

3.9

3.8

China

6 621

7 120

8 420

10 255

12 998

17 463

19 000

1.2

3.0

New Zealand

10 500

11 900

12 700

13 300

13 900

14 450

14 500

1.9

2.3

Ukraine

13 738

13 140

12 658

13 444

14 142

13 658

13 200

2.5

2.1

Australia

10 474

11 172

10 862

11 609

10 636

10 404

10 700

1.9

1.7

Turkey

8 832

8 800

8 750

8 490

8 489

8 500

8 700

1.6

1.4

Argentina

9 684

10 329

9 794

9 475

8 528

7 975

8 775

1.7

1.4

Japan

8 572

8 460

8 497

8 300

8 385

8 400

8 400

1.5

1.3

Canada

8 130

8 289

7 925

8 148

8 017

8 013

8 046

1.5

1.3

Belarus

5 232

4 762

4 320

4 300

4 907

5 000

5 000

0.9

0.8

Romania

5 160

5 076

5 002

5 047

4 450

4 500

4 500

0.9

0.7

Other countries

43 568

42 320

47 320

45 218

48 379

48 713

44 319

7.8

7.1

World total

476 862

483 436

490 611

495 837

505 746

512 700

514 000

05 p

2004 is a forecast figure.

2004 is a forecast figure.

the global trade; thus indicating the importance of dairy products to their economies.

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