Sources of further information and advice

An excellent overview of natural dyes in textile dyeing is given by Schweppe.2 A collection of the sources and chemical basis of natural dyes is presented and numerous details about procedures and results are given both on a chemical basis and from a historical view. Useful information about analytical procedures is also given in this handbook. Bhattacharya et al.23 investigated the properties of selected natural dyes on jute. Nishida and Kobayashi24 reported properties of natural dyes on silk, cotton and cashimilon using alum or ferrous sulphate mordants. Sorption behaviour of selected natural dyes on wool has also been studied and results are presented in the literature.56 Brückner et al.51 investigated the colour depth and fastness properties of selected natural dyes on wool and on synthetic fibres, e.g. polyester, polyamide and polyacrylnitrile. Lokhande et al.50 presented results with selected natural dyes on polyamide using various mordants, e.g. alum, ferrous sulphate, stannous chloride and tannic acid. A number of authors describe results obtained with natural dyes using various methods and plant sources, which can be helpful in the design and scale-up of laboratory processes.58'59

Analytical procedures for the quantification of a certain class of extracted dye component can be helpful to determine the quality of the plant material and the concentration of dyes in the extract. A number of recent papers describe useful information about analytical procedures for anthocy-anins,5460 phenolic components61 and carotenoids.62 Selected analytical procedures to characterise dyeings from plant extracts using traditional Korean methods are available in the literature.63 Recently published papers also address the problem of the low light fastness of natural dyes.15,16,64

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