Pressing and solvent extraction
Oilseeds contain oil, protein and starch in plant cells. Destructuring processes include cracking with corrugated rolls, dehulling, decorticating and flaking (Galloway, 1976). Seeds vary in oil content and the equipment required differs. Soybeans are solvent extracted whereas cotton seed, rape-seed, peanut, sunflower, palm and copra are examples where pressing followed by solvent extraction are undertaken (see Fig. 8.7). The main requirement is to avoid excessive damage, although cell and membrane breakage is required to open up the structure to release oil quickly. However, combination processes are actually used in secondary extraction after the majority of the oil has been removed. In addition to application of forces, elevated temperatures are used to denature proteins, decrease the oil
Whole beans— Cleaning — Cracking — Dehulling —Conditioning— Flaking
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