References

aguilera, j. m. and Stanley, d. w. (1990), Microstructural Principles of Food

Processing and Engineering, London, Elsevier. akin, d. e., himmelbach, d. s. and morrison, w. h. (2000), Biobased fiber production: enzyme retting for flax/linen fibers, J Polym Environ, 8, 103-109. alakomi, h., skytta, e., helander, i. and ahvenainen, r. (2002), The hurdle concept. In (eds Ohlsson T and Bengtsson N) Minimal Processing Technologies in the Food Industry, Cambridge, UK, Woodhead, pp. 175-195.

areas, j. a. g. and lawrie, r. (1984), Effect of lipid-protein interactions on extrusion of offal protein isolates, Meat Sci, 11, 275-299. back, e. l. and salmen, n. l. (1982), Glass transitions of wood components hold implications for molding and pulping processes, TAPPI, 65, 107-110. buchholz, k., kasche, v. and bornscheuer, u. t. (2005), Biocatalysts and

Enzyme Technology, New York, Blackie. carpita, n. c. and gibeaut, d. m. (1993), Structural models of primary cell walls in flowering plants: consistency of molecular structure with the physical properties of the walls during growth, Plant J, 3, 1-30. cavalier, c., queguiner, c. and cheftel, j. c. (1990), Preparation of cheese analogues by extrusion cooking. In (eds Zeuthen P, Cheftel J C, Eriksson C, Gormley T R, Linko P and Paulus K) Processing and Quality of Foods, Volume

cheftel, j-c. and culioli, j. (1997), Effects of high pressure on meat: a review.

Meat Sci, 46, 211-236. colonna, p., melcion, j-p., vergnes, b. and mercier, c. (1983), Flow, mixing and residence time distribution of maize starch within a twin-screw extruder with a longitudinally-split barrel, J Cereal Sci, 1, 115-125. della valle, g., colonna, p. and tayeb, j. (1990), Kinetics of starch derivitiza-tion by extrusion-cooking. In (eds Zeuthen P, Cheftel J C, Eriksson C, Gormley T R, Linko P and Paulus K) Processing and Quality of Foods, London, Elsevier, pp. 1282-1289.

dobraszczyk, b., atkins, a. g., jeronimidis, g. and purslow, p. (1987), Fracture toughness of frozen meat, Meat Sci, 21, 25-49. donovan, j. w. (1979), Phase transitions of the starch-water system, Biopolymers, 18, 263-275.

Ferdinand, j. m., kirby, a. r., senouci, a. and smith, a. c. (1989), The extrusion cooking of potato products. In (eds Field R W and Howell J A) Process Engineering in the Food Industry: Developments and Opportunities, London, Elsevier, pp. 59-75.

findlay, c. j., Stanley, d. w. and gullett, e. a. (1986), Thermomechanical properties of beef muscle, Meat Sci, 16, 57-70. frazier, p. j., crawshaw, a., daniels, n. w. r. and eggitt, p. (1983), Optimisation of process variables in extrusion texturising of soya. J Food Engng,

gal, s. (1983), The need for, and practical applications of, sorption data. In (eds Jowitt R, Escher F, Hallstrom B, Meffert H F T, Spiess W E L and Vos G) Physical Properties of Foods, London, Elsevier, pp. 13-25. galloway, g. p. (1976), Cleaning, cracking, dehulling, decorticating and flaking of oil bearing materials, J Am Oil Chem Soc, 3, 271-274. gibson, l. j. and ashby, m. f. (1997), Cellular Solids - Structure and Properties, London, Pergamon.

hashemi, s. (1997), Fracture toughness evaluation of ductile polymeric films,

J Mater Sci, 32, 1563-1573. hiller, s. and jeronimidis, g. (1996), Fracture in potato tuber parenchyma,

J Mater Sci, 31, 2779-2796. holm, j., bjorck, i. and eliasson, a-c. (1988), Effects of thermal processing of wheat on starch. I. Physico-chemical and functional properties, J Cereal Sci, 8, 249-260.

hu, l., huff, h. e., heymann, h. and hsieh, f. (1996), Effects of emulsifier and soy fiber addition on sensory properties of corn meal extrudate, J Food Qual, 19, 57-77.

jackman, r. l. and Stanley, d. w. (1995), Perspectives in the textural evaluation of plant foods, Trends Food Sci Technol, 6, 187-194.

jay, a., parker, m. l., faulks, r. m., husband f., wilde p. j., smith a. c., faulds, c. b. and waldron, k. w. (2007), A systematic micro-dissection of brewers' spent grain, J Cereal Sci, in press. jeronimidis, g. (1991), Mechanical and fracture properties of cellular and fibrous materials. In (eds Vincent J F V and Lillford P J) Feeding and Texture of Food, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, pp. 1-17. jolley, p. d. and purslow, p. p. (1988), Reformed meat products - fundamental concepts and new developments. In (eds Blanshard J M V and Mitchell J R) Food Structure - Its Creation and Evolution, London, Butterworth, pp. 231-264. kelley, s. s., rials, t. g. and glasser, w. g. (1987), Relaxation behaviour of the amorphous components of wood, J Mater Sci, 22, 617-624. kenealy, w. r. and jeffries, t. w. (2003), Enzyme processes for pulp and paper: a review of recent developments. In (eds Goodell B, Nicholas D D and Schultz T P) Wood Deterioration and Preservation: Advances in our Changing World, ACS Symposium Series 845, Oxford, Oxford University Press, pp. 210-239.

kinsella, j. (1978), Texturized proteins: fabrication, flavoring and nutrition, Crit

Rev Food Sci Nutr, 10, 147-207. kirby, a. r., ollett, a-l., parker, r. and smith, a. c. (1988), An experimental study of screw configuration effects in the twin-screw extrusion-cooking of maize grits, J Food Engng, 8, 247-272. kirby, a. r., clark, s. a., parker, r. and smith, a. c. (1993), The deformation and fracture behaviour of wheat starch plasticised with water and polyols, J Mater Sci, 28, 5937-5942.

knorr, d. (1995), High pressure effects on plant derived foods. In (eds Ledward D A, Johnston D E, Earnshaw R G and Hasting A P M) High Pressure Processing for Food, Loughborough, Nottingham University Press, pp. 125-135. kozempel, m. f., sullivan, j. f., craig, j. c., jr. and konstance, r. p. (1989),

Explosion puffing of fruits and vegetables, J Food Sci, 54, 772-773. krochta, j. m. (1992), Control of mass transfer in foods with edible coatings and films. In (eds Singh R P and Wirakartakusumah M A) Advances in Food Engineering, Boca Raton, Florida, CRC, pp. 517-538. lecain, s., ng, a., parker, m. l., smith, a. c. and waldron, k. w. (1999), Modification of cell wall polymers of onion waste. I. Effect of pressure cooking, Carbohydr Polym, 38, 59-67. levine, h. and slade, l. (1993), The glassy state phenomenon in food molecules. In (eds Blanshard J M V and Lillford P J) The Glassy State in Foods, Nottingham, UK, Nottingham University Press, pp. 35-101. lillford, p. j. (2001), Mechanisms of fracture in foods, J Texture Studies, 32, 397-417.

lineback, d. r. and rasper, v. f. (1988), Wheat carbohydrates. In (ed. Pomeranz Y) Wheat: Chemistry and Technology, Vol. 1, St Paul, Minnesota, AACC, pp. 277-372.

linko, p., hakulin, s. and linko, y-y. (1984), HTST-extrusion in ethanol production from starchy materials, Enzyme Microbiol Technol, 6, 457-461. linko, y-y., lindroos, a. and linko, p. (1979), Soluble and immobilised enzyme technology in bioconversion of barley starch, Enzyme Microbiol Technol, 1, 273-287.

linko, y-y., vuorinen, h., ollku, j. and linko, p. (1980), The effect of HTST extrusion on retention of cereal a-amylase activity and on enzymatic hydrolysis of barley starch. In (eds Linko P and Larinkari J) Food Process Engineering, Vol. 2, London, Elsevier, pp. 210-233. loncin, m. and merson, r. l. (1979), Food Engineering: Principles and Selected Applications, London, Applied Science.

ludikhuyze, l., van loey, a., indrawati, and hendrickx, m. (2001), Combined high pressure thermal treatment of foods. In (ed. Richardson P) Thermal Technologies in Food Processing, Cambridge, Woodhead, pp. 266-284. lue, s., hsieh, f. and huff, h. e. (1991), Extrusion cooking of corn meal and sugar beet fiber - effects on expansion properties, starch gelatinization, and dietary fiber content, Cereal Chem, 68, 227-234. Marshall, g. p., williams, j. g. and turner, c. e. (1973), Fracture toughness and absorbed energy measuremenets in impact tests on brittle materials, J Mater Sci, 8, 949-956.

martin-cabrejas, m. a., jaime, l., karanja, c., parker, m. l., lopez-andreu, f. j., maina g., esteban, r. m., smith a. c. and waldron k. w. (1999), Modifications to physico-chemical and nutritional properties of hard-to-cook beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) by extrusion cooking, J Agric Food Chem, 47, 1174-1182. mchugh, t. h. and huxsoll, c. c. (1999), Extrusion processing of restructured peach and peach/starch gels, Lebensm Wiss uTechnol, 32, 513-520. meijer, w j. m., vertregt, n., rutgers, b. and van de waart, m. (1995), The pectin content as a measure of the retting and rettability of flax, Ind Crop Prod, 4, 273-284.

Mitchell, j. r. and areas, j. a. g. (1992), Structural changes in biopolymers during extrusion. In (eds Kokini J L, Ho C T and Karwe M V) Food Extrusion Science and Technology, New York, Marcel Dekker, pp. 345-360. ng, a., lecain, s., parker, m. l., smith, a. c. and waldron, k. w. (1999), Modification of cell wall polymers of onion waste. III. Effect of extrusion-cooking, Carbohydr Polym, 39, 341-349. oliveira, m. g., moller-holst, s., haaland, h. and rosenlund, g. (1992), The effects of process parameters on expansion of extruded fish feeds. In (eds Kokini J L, Ho C T and Karwe M V) Food Extrusion Science and Technology, New York, Marcel Dekker, pp. 669-676. ollett, a-l, parker, r. and smith, a. c. (1991), Deformation and fracture behaviour of wheat starch plasticised with water and glucose, J Mater Sci, 26, 1351-1356.

parker, m. l., ng, a., smith, a. c. and waldron, k. w. (2000), Esterified phenolics of the cell walls of Chufa (Cyperus Esculentus L.) tubers and their role in texture, J Agric Food Chem, 48, 6284-6291. parker, r., ollett, a-l. and smith, a. c. (1990), Starch melt rheology: measurements, modelling and application to extrusion processing. In (eds Zeuthen P et al.) Processing and Quality of Foods, Vol. 1, London, Elsevier, pp. 290-295. phillips, d. c. and harris, b. (1977), The strength, toughness and fatigue properties of polymer composites. In (ed. Richardson M O W) Polymer Engineering Composites, London, Elsevier, pp. 45-154. pomeranz, y. (1987), Modern Cereal Science and Technology, Weinheim, Germany, VCH.

purslow, p. (1985), The physical basis of meat texture: observations on the fracture behaviour of cooked bovine M. Semitendinosus, Meat Sci, 12, 39-60. queguiner, c., dumay, c., cavalier-salou, c. and cheftel, j. c. (1992), Application of extrusion cooking to dairy products: preparation of fat analogues by microcoagulation of whey proteins. In (eds Kokini J L, Ho C T and Karwe M V) Food Extrusion Science and Technology, New York, Marcel Dekker, pp. 373-386.

richardson, p. (2001), Thermal Technologies in Food Processing, Cambridge, UK, Woodhead.

rizvi, s. s. h., mulvaney, s. j. and sokhey, a. s. (1995), The combined application of supercritical fluid and extrusion technology, Trends Food Sci Technol, 6, 232-240.

roberts, r. j., rowe, r. c. and kendall, k. (1989), Brittle-ductile transitions in die compaction of sodium chloride, Chem Engng Sci, 44, 1647-1651. rokey, g. j. (1994), Petfood and fishfood extrusion. In (ed. Frame N D) The

Technology of Extrusion Cooking, London, Blackie, pp. 144-189. rowley, a. t. (2001), Radio frequency heating. In (ed. Richardson P) Thermal

Technologies in Food Processing, Cambridge, Woodhead, pp. 163-177. rozzi, n. l. and singh, r. k. (2002), Supercritical fluids and the food industry,

Comp Rev Food Sci Food Safety, 1, 33-44. ruan, r., ye, x., chen, p. and doona, c. j. (2001), Ohmic heating. In (ed. Richardson P) Thermal Technologies in Food Processing, Cambridge, Woodhead, pp. 241-265.

saltveit, m. e. (2003), Temperature extremes. In (eds Brecht J K and Bartz J A) Postharvest Physiology and Pathology of Vegetables, New York, Marcel Dekker, pp. 457-483.

shogren, r. l., fanta, g. f. and doane, w. m. (1993), Development of starch based plastics: a re-examination of selected polymer systems in historical perspective, Die Starke, 45, 276-280. smith, a. c. (1989), Solid foams. In (eds Bee R D, Richmond P and Mingins J) Food Colloids, Special Publication No. 75, London, Royal Society of Chemistry, pp. 56-73.

smith, a. c. (1991), The processing of brittle textures. In (eds Vincent J F V and Lillford P J) Feeding and Texture of Food, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, pp. 185-210.

smith, a. c. (1992), Studies of the physical structure of starch based materials in the extrusion cooking process. In (eds Kokini J L, Ho C T and Karwe M V) Food Extrusion Science and Technology, New York, Marcel Dekker, pp. 573-618.

smith, a. c. (2003), Textural characterization of extruded materials and influence of common additives. In (eds Kaletunc G and Breslauer K) Characterization of Cereals and Flours, New York, Marcel Dekker, pp. 311-350. smith, a. c., waldron, k. w., maness, n. o. and perkins-veazie, p. (2003), Vegetable texture: measurement and structural implications. In (eds Brecht J K and Bartz J A) Postharvest Physiology and Pathology of Vegetables, New York, Marcel Dekker, pp. 297-329. Stanley, d. w. (1989), Protein reactions during extrusion processing. In (eds Mercier C, Linko P and Harper J M) Extrusion Cooking, St Paul, Minnesota, AACC, pp. 321-341. Stanley, d. w. and aguilera, j. m. (1985), A review of textural defects in cooked reconstituted legumes - the influence of structure and composition, J Food Biochem, 9, 277-323. sullivan, j. f. and egoville, m. j. (1986), Explosion puffing of mushrooms,

Lebensm Wiss u Technol, 19, 409-411. sullivan, j. f., craig, j. c., dekazos, e. d., leiby, s. m. and konstance, r. p. (1982), Dehydrated blueberries by the continuous explosion-puffing process, J Food Sci, 47, 445-448. uhlig, h. (1998), Industrial Enzymes and their Applications, New York, Wiley. verlinden, b. e., de barsy, t., de baerdemaeker, j. and deltour, r. (1996), Modelling the mechanical and histological properties of carrot tissue during cooking in relation to texture and cell wall changes, J Texture Studies, 27, 15-28.

visser, j. (1988), Dry spinning of milk proteins. In (eds Blanshard J M V and Mitchell J R) Food Structure - Its Creation and Evaluation, London, Butterworth, pp. 181-196.

wade, p. (1987), Biscuit baking by near-infrared radiation, J Food Engng, 6, 165-175.

waldron, k. w., smith, a. c., ng, a., parr, a. j. and parker, m. l. (1997), New approaches to understanding and controlling the effects of cell separation on fruit and vegetable texture, Trends Food Sci Technol, 8, 213-221. waldron, k. w., parker, m. l. and smith, a. c. (2003), Plant cell walls and food quality, Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr, 2, 101-119. wampler, d. j. and gould, w. a. (1984), Utilisation of distillers spent grain in extrusion processed doughs, J Food Sci, 49, 1321-1322. ward, i. m. (1983), Mechanical Properties of Solid Polymers, New York, Wiley. warner, m. and edwards, s. f. (1988), Scaling approach to elasticity and flow in solid foams, Europhys Lett, 5, 623-628. whittaker, j. r., voragen, a. g. j. and wong, d. s. w. (eds) (2002), Handbook of Food Enzymology, New York, Marcel Dekker. Wiedmann, w. and strobel, e. (1987), Processing and economic advantages of extrusion cooking in comparison with conventional processes in the food industry. In (ed. O'Connor C) Extrusion Technology for the Food Industry, London, Elsevier, pp. 132-169. Williams, j. g. (1984), Fracture Mechanics of Polymers, Chichester, UK, Ellis Horwood.

yakimets, i., wellner, n., smith, a. c., Wilson, r h, farhat, i. and Mitchell, j. (2005), Influence of water content on the mechanical properties of gelatin films, Polymer, 46, 12577-12585. zeleznak, k. j. and hoseney, r. c. (1987), The glass transition of starch, Cereal Chem, 64, 211-214.

Was this article helpful?

0 0
Guide to Alternative Fuels

Guide to Alternative Fuels

Your Alternative Fuel Solution for Saving Money, Reducing Oil Dependency, and Helping the Planet. Ethanol is an alternative to gasoline. The use of ethanol has been demonstrated to reduce greenhouse emissions slightly as compared to gasoline. Through this ebook, you are going to learn what you will need to know why choosing an alternative fuel may benefit you and your future.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment