Process optimisation to minimise water use in food

processing 90

Jiri Klemes and Simon J. Perry, The University of Manchester, UK

5.1 Introduction: water use and wastage in food processing 90

5.2 How to minimise water usage and wastewater treatment - present state-of-the-art and future trends 93

5.3 Overview of selected case studies 100

5.4 Sources of further information and advice 110

5.5 References 113

Part III Key issues and technologies for food waste separation and co-product recovery

6 The importance of microbiological risk management in the stabilisation of food processing co-products 119

T. F. Brocklehurst, Institute of Food Research, UK

6.1 Introduction: importance of microbiological risk management in the stabilisation of co-products 119

6.2 Strategies for microbiological risk management 120

6.3 Strategies for controlling micro-organisms:

methods of preservation 127

6.4 Future trends 143

6.5 References 145

7 Effects of postharvest changes in quality on the stability of plant co-products 149

M. E. Saltveit, University of California, USA

7.1 Introduction 149

7.2 Changes during fruit ripening 150

7.3 Response to adverse environments 155

7.4 Changes in composition 160

7.5 Future trends 162

7.6 Sources of further information and advice 163

7.7 Reference 164

8 The potential for destructuring of food processing waste by combination processing 165

A. C. Smith, Institute of Food Research, UK

8.1 Introduction 165

8.2 Effect of destructuring on foods and their components 167

8.3 Lessons from other industries 175

8.4 Preservation processes 176

8.5 Tools for breakdown/disassembly 179

8.6 Processes 182

8.7 Examples of combination processing 189

8.8 Future trends 191

8.9 Sources of further information and advice 192

8.10 References 192

9 Enzymatic extraction and fermentation for the recovery of food processing products 198

K. Belafi-Bako, University of Veszprem, Hungary

9.1 Introduction and key issues 198

9.2 Biocatalytic methods 199

9.3 Future trends 210

9.4 Sources of further information and advice 211

9.5 References 211

10 Supercritical fluid extraction and other technologies for extraction of high-value food processing co-products 217

T. H. Walker, P. Patel and K. Cantrell, Clemson University, USA

10.1 Introduction 217

10.2 Key reasons for use of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) 220

10.3 Supercritical fluid extraction 220

10.4 Modeling of solubility and mass transfer 232

10.5 Other technologies 242

10.6 Future trends 245

10.7 Acknowledgements 246

10.8 References 246

11 Membrane and filtration technologies and the separation and recovery of food processing waste 258

B. Ditgens, University of Bonn, Germany

11.1 Introduction 258

11.2 Established membrane technologies 260

11.3 New fields of application 267

11.4 Conclusions 277

11.5 Notation 278

11.6 References 278

12 Separation technologies for food wastewater treatment and product recovery 282

H. M. El-Mashad and R. Zhang, University of California, USA

12.1 Introduction 282

12.2 Principles for separation 283

12.3 Separation and recovery technologies 283

12.4 Future trends 297

12.5 Conclusions 298

12.6 Sources of further information and advice 298

12.7 References 299

Part IV Waste management in particular food industry sectors and recovery of specific co-products

13 Waste management and co-product recovery in red and white meat processing 305

P. Roupas, K. De Silva and G. Smithers, CSIRO-Food Science Australia, Australia; and A. Ferguson, Alamanda Enterprises Pty Ltd, Australia

13.1 Introduction 305

13.2 Waste minimization and processing efficiency 306

13.3 Responsible waste disposal 308

13.4 Waste value-addition 314

13.5 Conclusions and future trends 326

13.6 Sources of further information and advice 327

13.7 References 328

14 Waste management and co-product recovery in dairy processing 332

R. J. Durham and J. A. Hourigan, University of Western Sydney, Australia

14.1 Introduction 332

14.2 Worldwide dairy production trends 333

14.3 Current status of waste problems faced by the dairy industry 337

14.4 Cleaner production in the dairy industry 347

14.5 Co-product recovery in dairy processing 349

14.6 Improving end-waste management in dairy processing 369

14.7 Future trends 376

14.8 Sources of further information and advice 376

14.9 References 377

15 Waste management and co-product recovery in fish processing 388

S. Goldhor, Center for Applied Regional Studies, USA, and J. Regenstein, Cornell University, USA

15.1 Introduction 388

15.2 Co-product recovery and development 388

15.3 Shellfish 410

15.4 Future trends 413

15.5 Sources of further information and advice 414

15.6 References 415

16 Recovery and reuse of trimmings and pulps from fruit and vegetable processing 417

M. Panouillé, M.-C. Ralet, E. Bonnin and J.-F. Thibault, Instituí National de la Recherche Agronomique, France

16.1 Introduction 417

16.2 Origin and general characterisation of the by-products 418

16.3 Use of the whole by-products 421

16.4 Recovery of functional biopolymers 423

16.5 Upgrading of the mono-/oligomeric components 431

16.6 Conclusion and future trends 438

16.7 Sources of further information and advice 439

16.8 References 439

17 High-value co-products from plant foods: nutraceuticals, micronutrients and functional ingredients 448

17.1 Introduction 448

17.2 Residues generation and key reasons for co-product recovery 449

17.3 Phytochemicals present in plant food residues 450

17.4 Uses of plant food residues as sources for phytochemical extracts 453

17.5 Important sources of high-value co-products 455

17.6 Examples of phytochemical extracts from plant food wastes 462

17.7 Technological processes for phytochemicals extraction from residues 463

17.8 Safety issues 465

17.9 Future trends 465

17.10 Conclusions 465

17.11 References 466

18 High-value co-products from plant foods: cosmetics and pharmaceuticals 470

A. Femenia, Universitat de les Illes Balears, Spain

18.1 Introduction 470

18.2 Key reasons for exploiting plant-derived compounds from co-products 472

18.3 Recovery of plant-based co-products for use in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals 474

18.4 Future trends 489

18.5 Sources of further information and advice 490

18.6 References 491

19 Natural dyes from food processing wastes 502

T. Bechtold A. Mahmud-Ali and R. Mussak, University of Innsbruck, Austria

19.1 Introduction 502

19.2 Natural dyes in technical textile dyeing operations . . . . 502

19.3 The extraction step 512

19.4 Sources for natural dyes - results of a screening for sources in food processing 514

19.5 Natural dyes from food processing wastes -representative examples 517

19.6 Future trends 529

19.7 Sources of further information and advice 530

19.8 References 530

20 Improving waste management and co-product recovery in vegetable oil processing 534

M. Arienzo and P. Violante, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Italy

20.1 Introduction 534

20.2 Key reasons to improve waste management in vegetable oil processing 539

20.3 Co-product recovery in vegetable oil processing 542

20.4 Reducing waste in vegetable oil production 554

20.5 Improving end waste management in vegetable oil production 556

20.6 Future trends 565

20.7 References 566

Part V Minimising disposal: wastewater and solid waste management in the food industry

21 Treatment of food processing wastewater 573

D. Bolzonella and F. Cecchi, University of Verona, Italy, and P. Pavan, Cà Foscari University, Italy

21.1 Introduction 573

21.2 Food wastewater production and characteristics 574

21.3 Analysis of conventional technologies for treatment of food processing wastewater 578

21.4 Future trends 587

21.5 References 592

22 Dewatering systems for solid food processing waste 597

V. Orsat and G. S. Vijaya Raghavan, McGill University, Canada

22.1 Introduction 597

22.2 Waste conditioning 598

22.3 Dewatering methods 598

22.4 Combining dewatering methods 605

22.5 An environmental and economic choice 606

22.6 Conclusions 607

22.7 References 607

23 Fermentation, biogas and biohydrogen production from solid food processing 611

C. L. Hansen and D. Y. Cheong, Utah State University, USA

23.1 Introduction: fermentation, biogas and biohydrogen production from food waste 611

23.2 Key reasons to consider using anaerobic processes . . . . 612

23.3 Biochemical and microbiological principles of the anaerobic process: hydrolysis, acidogenesis, methanogenesis 615

23.4 Environmental and operational variables of anaerobic treatment 617

23.5 High-rate anaerobic bioconversion system 624

23.6 Requirements for high-rate anaerobic bioconversion systems 624

23.7 Single-stage high-rate anaerobic digesters 625

23.8 Continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) 630

23.9 Separation of anaerobic processes in reactor systems 630

23.10 Biohydrogen production by anaerobic fermentation 632

23.11 Producing other chemicals and useful products from food waste 637

23.12 Future trends 640

23.13 References 642

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