The first new products obtainable from oil wastes are isoflavones, which are extracted from the waste of soy protein production. Isoflavones are structurally close to oestrogens and have been proved to aid in the fight against breast and prostate cancer. Another product is tocotrienol, which is a strong antioxidant, like vitamin E, that is extracted from palm oil processing by-products. From the palm oil waste stream there is also the possibility of extracting a natural P-carotene. Additional soy oil by-products in preparation are phosphytidyl choline and phosphytidyl serine. These products have health benefits and can be sold into the neutraceutical market.
552 Handbook of waste management and co-product recovery 20.3.8 Biogas
Biogas can be produced separately from collected bio-waste or from bio-waste and sewage sludge in co-digestion plants. In addition to bio-waste digestion in reactors that are built exclusively for bio-waste treatment, the bio-waste can also be co-digested together with sewage sludge or cattle manure. Co-digestion of unknown fatty and oily residues might, however, lead to failure of methanogenesis. Thus, plant operators should not risk process disturbance by feeding co-substrates of unknown composition, even though the time taken to repay the investment might be much shorter. Apart from the risk of feeding indigestible or even toxic material, the fat-and lipid-containing wastes may not be readily digestible at thermophilic temperatures, due to an absence of lipase activity or due to the inhibiting effect of long-chain fatty acid hydrolysis products. In addition, moulds on fat- and oil-containing food wastes may produce antimicrobial agents during pre-storage, and these may cause failure of acetogenesis and methanogenesis.
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