There are a number of case studies available, for example: Dilek et al. (2003), a sugar plant; Hyde et al. (2001), food and drink industry - a demonstration project in East Anglia, UK; Vigneswaran et al. (1999), a prawn farm.
Wrigley (2004) presented an interesting example of on-farm dairy processing which provides various recommendations for good practices including some interesting cheese production figures. The need for integration of water and wastewater management with farm planning was an essential outcome of this study. It emphasised the need for measurement, performance-monitoring and self-regulation, which could easily be neglected in a busy farming environment.
Andreottola et al. (2002) presented pilot-scale experiments that were carried out applying the sequencing batch biofilm reactor (SBBR) process for the treatment of winery waste water. The aim was the evaluation of the SBBR performance and the development of a control strategy based on dissolved oxygen (DO) for the optimisation of the SBBR treatment cycle and the minimisation of the energy supply. The results of the experimentation have confirmed the applicability of the SBBR process pointing out high COD removal efficiencies between 86 and 99%, with applied loads up to 29 g COD/m2 per day, corresponding to 8.8 kg COD/m3 per day. The on-line monitoring of DO concentration appeared to be a good indicator of progress in the COD biodegradation.
Linnhoff March (www.linhoffmarch.com) have successfully completed numerous case studies including a whey products factory (Borculo, Netherlands), corn processing (Cestar, UK), food processing (Birds Eye Wall's (UK) and edible oil production (Van den Bergh & Jurgens, UK), etc.
There are two main groups of conferences dealing with water minimisation. The first group is related to water and wastewater minimisation generally and includes conferences such as:
• PRES Process Integration, Modelling and Optimisation for Energy Saving and Pollution Reduction has been organised annually from 1999. The recent conferences were organised in Sicily, Italy in May 2005 (PRES '05) and in Prague, Czech Republic, August 2006 (PRES '06), (www.conferencepres.com).
• The IWA (International Water Association) is composed of specialist groups that organise various conferences. The recent conferences were held in June 2005 in Sapporo, Japan (Leading-Edge Conference and Exhibition on Water and Wastewater Treatment Technologies) and in
May 2006 in Moscow, Russian Federation (IWA Specialized Conference - Sustainable Sludge Management: State of the Art, Challenges and Perspectives).
• There are various other related conferences. Water and Wastewater Europe was held in 2004 in Barcelona, Spain; EnviroWater 2006 was held in May 2006 in Delft, the Netherlands (for more information see the website: www.wau.nl/rpv/isomul/envirowater2006/papers.htm).
The second group are specialised conferences related to food processing such as:
• The 3rd International Conference on Sustainable Agriculture for Food, Energy, and Industry. This was held on 22-27 August 2005 at Brock University in St Catharines, Canada (for more information visit the website: www.icsagr-fei.org/conference/).
• Air and Waste Management Association and Water Environment Federation International Conference: Animal Agriculture and Processing: Managing Environmental Impacts. This conference was held on 31 August-2 September 2005 at the Hyatt Regency in St Louis, Missouri (for more information visit the website: www.awma.org/events/ confs/Animal/default.asp).
• 2005 National Forum on Contaminants in Fish. This conference was held on 18-21 September 2005 in Baltimore, Maryland (for more information, see epa.gov/waterscience/fish/forum/2005/).
• International Symposium on Water and Land Management for Sustainable Irrigated Agriculture. Conference held on 4-8 April 2006 at Cukurova University in Adana, Turkey (for more information visit the website: symp2006.cu.edu.tr/).
• CIWEM (European Biosolids and Biowaste Conference). The 9th conference was held in November 2004 at Wakefield, UK.
• The Annual Meeting of the Food Industry Environmental Council, US Environmental Protection Agency (www.epa.gov/water/speeches/ 031703tm.html).
• Centre for Process Integration, CEAS, The University of Manchester, PO Box 88, Manchester M60 1QD, UK, Tel. +44 (0)161 306 4380, Fax +44 (0)161 236 7439 (www.ceas.manchester.ac.uk/research/ researchcentres/centreforprocessintegration/).
• Linnhoff March, Targeting House, Gadbrook Park, Northwich, Cheshire CW9 7UZ, UK; Tel. +44(0)1606 815100; Fax +44(0)1606 815151 (www. linnhoffmarch.com/contact/uk.html and www.kbcat.com).
• Grantham Cartwright and Associates Ltd, Europarc Innovation Centre, Innovation Way, Europarc, Great Grimsby, North East Lincolnshire, DN37 9TT, UK, Tel. +44 (0)1472 361361, Fax +44 (0)1472 361362, email [email protected] (www.granthamcartwright.co.uk/ contact.html).
• Accepta (water treatment chemicals, wastewater and speciality chemical supplies, test kits, chemical reagents, testing, analysis and control equipment), Quay West, Trafford Wharf Road, Manchester M17 1HH, Tel. +44 (0)161 240 2100, Fax +44 (0)870 135 6389, email [email protected] com.
A variety of service providers outside the UK can be found on the web.
Some of them are listed below:
• Esperanto Environnement, 189 rue de l'EtiageLachenaie, Quebec, Canada, Tel. +1 514 705 3274/1563, Fax +1 450 492 2082, Sales Tel. +1 514 705 1563, Fax +1 514 221 3393, email [email protected].
• CANMET, Natural Resources Canada, Tel. +1 613 995 0947 (www. nrcan-rncan.gc.ca/inter/contact_e.html).
• Frost & Sullivan, San Antonio, Texas, 7550 IH 10 West, Suite 400, San Antonio, TX 78229-5616, USA, Tel. +1.877.GO.FROST (463.7678), email [email protected]. In Europe, Middle East and Africa: 4 Grosvenor Gardens, London SW1W 0DH, UK, Tel. +44 (0)20 7343 8383, email [email protected] (www.frost.com/prod/servlet/locations. pag).
• AWARENET (Agro-Food Wastes Minimisation and Reduction Network). Provided valuable and comprehensive information on various aspects of waste minimisation, including energy minimisation (de las Fuentes et al., 2002a,b).
• SUCLEAN (Research on minimisation of energy and water use in sugar production by cooling crystallisation of concentrated raw juice) (Klemes et al., 1999).
• ENALT 2C (Treatment of Wastewater from a Potato-Processing Factory by a Combined Four Step Anaerobic Stationary Fixed Film Technology). This project ended in 1990, however it still provides some interesting results (Cordis, 1990).
• UDOR (technology for treatment and recycling of the water used to wash olives). This project deals with another important water and wastewater-related issue - washing food (Cordis, 2004).
• SEWUM (water pinch: simultaneous energy and water use minimisation). This project significantly contributed towards the development of the process integration methodology reviewed in this chapter and increasingly applied in food processing industry (Cordis, 1998; Klemes et al., 1998).
• LIFE 1 (integration of environmentally friendly production technologies within the processing of slaughterhouse blood). Dealing with an important water and wastewater problem related to slaughterhouses. The main steps were: (1) decreasing energy and water use; (2) modification of certain production processes; (3) revaluation of certain waste streams; (4) clarification of waste water using ultrafiltration and reversed osmosis (Cordis, 1996).
• WATERMAN (intelligent management system for water and energy minimisation in Latin American food industries), INCO-DC Project.
• LIFE 1 (waste reduction and recycling through animal feed in the agri-food industry - 94/IRL/A13/IRL/00342). The main aims were the development of techniques for the collection, storage, recycling and disposal of waste, particularly toxic and dangerous waste and waste water (Cordis, 1997).
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