During the last century the textile dyeing industry developed from manufacturing procedures into fully automated technical processes. This chapter focuses on the potential for natural dyes to be used in textile dyeing, with special reference to plant-based materials found in food processing and food chain waste streams. In Section 19.2 the requirements that have to be met for successful application of natural dyes in textile dyeing operations are summarised. Natural dyes present in plant wastes have to be extracted for use in the dyebath. In Section 19.3 the extraction step is discussed with regard to energy and chemicals, which forms a basis to compare different strategies to handle natural dyes in full technical scale. Results of a screening study to identify suitable wastes, released from the food and beverage industries, as potential sources for natural dyes are shown in Section 19.4. Detailed discussion of representative examples (onion peels, walnut, pressed berries, grapes and tea) is presented in Section 19.5. Future trends and access to more detailed literature are given in Sections 19.6 and 19.7.
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Your Alternative Fuel Solution for Saving Money, Reducing Oil Dependency, and Helping the Planet. Ethanol is an alternative to gasoline. The use of ethanol has been demonstrated to reduce greenhouse emissions slightly as compared to gasoline. Through this ebook, you are going to learn what you will need to know why choosing an alternative fuel may benefit you and your future.