Several methods have been proposed for OMWW and olive disposal, based on evaporation ponds, thermal concentration, physicochemical and biological treatments, as well as their application to agricultural soils as an organic fertilizer either directly or after a composting process. Various processes have been developed for the treatment of organic fractions of differently composed wastes to upgrade them to more valuable, re-usable products, organic acids and solvents, and biopolymer or bio-surfactant production, or a least to recover their energy content. Different oxidation methods exist for the abatement of the major contaminants present in oil industrial waste-waters by ozone and/or UV radiation versus solar light. The possibility of using an electrochemical treatment of OMWW to oxidize phenols and polyphenols has also been explored.
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