In addition to the processes and technologies described above, which are well established and applied at industrial scale, some new processes and trends have recently been developed. In particular, some important aspects are receiving increasing attention: the treatment of wastewaters in 'intensified processes' like membrane bioreactors (Stephenson et al., 2000) and jet loop reactors, but also the production of chemicals and biofuels through the fermentation of wastewaters rich in organic compounds. These concepts will be discussed in the following sections.
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