Whey fractionation imposes greater processing demands, but results in a wide range of products with unique functionalities and high value in the market place. Fractionated whey products include: whey protein concentrate; whey protein isolate; a and p fractions; bioactive proteins such as immunoglobulins, lactoferrin, lactoperoxidase and glycomacropeptide (GMP); and hydrolysed bioactive peptides. By-products from the ultrafiltration permeate include edible-grade lactose, pharmaceutical-grade lactose, hydrolysed lactose, lactose derivatives and milk salts. Applications of whey by-products are summarised in Table 14.17.
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