Although few studies have been reported that compare the TSAD system to the TPAD system, subtle differences in system configuration such as
Table 23.4 Major advantages and disadvantages of the TPAD system Advantages
Isolate and optimize the conditions for potential rate-limiting steps:
• Hydrolysis encouraged during first phase
• Methanogenesis encouraged during second phase
Improve reaction kinetics and stability:
• pH control in each phase
• improved reactor stability to organic and hydraulic overloads
• select for faster-growing microbes
Potential for detoxification in acidogenic phase Disadvantages
Disruption of syntrophic relationships Configuration more difficult to implement and operate Lack of applicability to a variety of wastes
Uncertainty of linkage between substrate type and reactor configuration Requirement of additional reactor and the cost gas-phase management and combinations have been demonstrated to improve process performance. Wiegant et al. (1994) investigated the performance efficiency of UASB reactors using single and TSAD systems and found 10-13% better performance in the TSAD system due to biogas removal evolved in the first stage. Dugba and Zhang (1999) studied a temperature-phased TSAD system using ASBRs for treatment of dairy wastewater and they reported that thermophilic-mesophilic staging is recommended over mesophilic-mesophilic staging for best solids removals, biogas production and coliform bacteria destruction. One drawback was the increased heating requirement.
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