Further studies

Another case study analysing a sugar plant by heat integration methodology in a developing country has been recently published by Raghu Ram and Banerjee (2003). In this particular case pinch analysis was used to determine the hot utility requirement, which was found to be 9 less than the amount that was actually being consumed. Modifications to the Existing network Modified network (a) Internal changes comprising rearrangement of the existing heat exchangers Existing condensates gathering...

Functional fibre

These physicochemical properties have led to proposals that plant cell wall residues could be used as water (super)absorbants and natural ion exchangers. Indeed, ion exchange resins are widely used for water depollution. The Table 16.2 Physicochemical characteristics of dietary fibre from fruit and vegetable wastes Table 16.2 Physicochemical characteristics of dietary fibre from fruit and vegetable wastes WBC water-binding capacity CEC, cation exchange capacity. WBC water-binding capacity CEC,...

Uses of plant food residues as sources for phytochemical extracts

Examples of the actual use of wastes from fruit processing industries to produce extracts that are available in the market include orange, grape, apple and olive residues. The residues from orange-juice extraction industries (orange albedo and flavedo, and fruit segments) have already been exploited for many years for the extraction of flavanones (hesperidin and related compounds) and pectin. Grape wastes from the wine-making industries (grape pomace and seeds) are also used industrially for...

Phenols

Olives and olive oil contain phenolic compounds (Tsimidou et al., 1992 Tsimidou, 1998) that, in vitro, have been shown to exert potent biological activities including but not limited to antioxidant actions (Visioli et al., 1998). Visioli et al. (1999) reported that OMWW extracts contain potent antioxidants. Among these polyphenols, hydroxytyrosol has been revealed to be the most interesting because of its remarkable pharmacological and antioxidant properties. Hydroxytyrosol originates in all...

The extraction step

The extraction step is highlighted here from different points of view raw material used (Section 19.3.1) chemical consumption (Section 19.3.2) and energy consumption (Section 19.3.3). The successful introduction of natural dyes into commercial textile production is dependent on the formation of a standardised dye. A significant improvement in the overall consumption of energy, chemicals and water has to be reached in relation to the state of the art processes. Easy handling and storage of plant...

Anaerobic processes

Anaerobic digestion is one of the most promising technologies for disposing of OMWW as it is a process for both decontaminating and valorizing (by producing methane) such wastewaters. Furthermore, this technology produces low amounts of waste sludges and employs bacteria with very low decay rates, which allows the process to be carried out in seasonal operations without requiring to be fed with OMWW all through the year. The process is generally carried out in conventional contact bioreactors...

References

Appelhof, m. (2001), Worms Eat My Garbage, 2nd edn, Flower Press, Kalamazoo, Michigan. aspmo, s. i. (2005), Proteolytic conversion of cod viscera to ingredients for microbial growth media. Ph.D thesis, Norwegian University of Life Sciences. cao, h., giurca, r. and levin, r. e. (1997), Continuous propionic acid fermentation of hydrolyzed cod (Gadus morhua) gurry. J. Food Biochem. 21, 371-382. choi, s. s. and regenstein, j. m. (2000), Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of fish gelatin....

Chain management to minimise waste

The food supply chain is a network of companies that handle food, from the farmer to the retailer. Supply-chain management is a relatively new concept that first appeared in the 1980s in the Japanese motor industry. The Japanese recognised that a business working in a vacuum would find it increasingly challenging to improve its success in increasingly competitive markets. In order to meet consumer needs more efficiently and effectively, a business must work cooperatively with its suppliers and...

Improving endwaste management in dairy processing 1461 Water

Water is a limited resource, yet dairy processing characteristically requires very large quantities of fresh water. Water is used primarily for cleaning process equipment and work areas to maintain hygiene standards. The dominant environmental problem caused by dairy processing is the discharge of large quantities of liquid effluent. For plants located near urban areas, effluent is often discharged to municipal sewage treatment systems. In extreme cases, the organic load of waste milk solids...

Commonly employed methods of preservation

This section describes preservation strategies that can be regarded as 'inpack' methods of preservation. These include the use of chemical additives (organic and inorganic), adjustment of pH, control of the reduction-oxidation potential, control of water activity, use of natural preservatives, microbial antagonism, low temperature and modification of the gaseous atmosphere. These methods of preservation may be used singly or in combination - in which case they are termed a 'preservation...

Cleaner production in the dairy industry

Cleaner Production is a preventative approach to environmental management that encompasses eco-efficiency, waste minimisation and pollution prevention. Cleaner Production is a forward-looking, 'anticipate and prevent' philosophy. Cleaner Production does not deny growth it merely insists that growth be ecologically sustainable (UNEP 2004). In this context, waste is considered a 'product' with negative economic value. Each action to reduce consumption of raw materials and energy, and reduce...

Diversification and risk

The difficulty of exploiting food processing waste may be considered from a business management perspective. Because of the specificity of a given raw material and its processing in relation to a particular product, surplus and waste food processing co-products are not readily utilized by the parent processors. Exploitation of the waste would necessitate a degree of diversification which would probably include the formulation of new products for current or new markets. This would create a high...

Separation and recovery technologies

This section presents the theories of various physical and chemical separation technologies and the application of each for treatment of food processing waste wastewater. 12.3.1 Physical and thermal processes According to Kentish and Stevens (2001), physico-chemical processes are usually effective in reducing organic pollutants in the wastewater to levels Fig. 12.1 Definition of a separation process. Fig. 12.1 Definition of a separation process. Fig. 12.2 Common separation technologies for food...

Combining anaerobic and aerobic processes

Some biological and physicochemical OMWW pre-treatments have been proposed to reduce the occurrence of these pollutants in the wastewater sent to the digestor (Borja et al., 1998 Beccari et al., 1999, 2000) however, only limited improvements in the overall phenol removal were achieved. More promising results have been recently achieved on the laboratory scale by integrating the activity of conventional anaerobic digestors with that of an aerobic post-treatment employing activated sludge biomass...

Preservation processes

Higher quality of plant material and meat is normally synonymous with less destructuring, therefore the requirements of the waste utilisation processes Fig. 8.5 Brittle-ductile transition in salt (from Roberts et al., 1989). Fig. 8.5 Brittle-ductile transition in salt (from Roberts et al., 1989). may or may not be aligned with protocols for maintenance of quality. This is a general comment that pervades the transfer of rules from other industries. Before destructuring, the waste stream may need...

Case study

In 2001, without spending money on new technology, Heinz Australia realised savings of AUS 60 000 per year by reducing waste in the production and retailing of tomato ketchup. This was accomplished by forming a supply-chain partnership programme to develop environmental management systems (EMS) for supply chains in the tomato ketchup industry. Infotech Research headed up the project, with funding and support from The Commonweath Department of Environment and Heritage. Infotech worked with the...

Natural dyes from food processing wastes representative examples

The extract quality of selected examples is discussed in Section 19.5.1, sources presented in more detail are onion peels (19.5.2), nuts (19.5.3), berries (19.5.4), grape pomace (19.5.5) and tea residues (19.5.6). A comparison of the amount of extracted dyestuff can be made by comparison with commercial reactive dyes. In the literature, Reactive Red 4 (Cibacron Brillant Red 3B-A, Ciba, Basel) was taken as a representative dyestuff.19 Based on the absorbance of this dye, the absorbance of plant...

Future trends 641 New thinking in QMRA

It has recently been suggested that the QMRA approach for the global control of microbiological hazards be fine-tuned, and two additional definitions have been introduced. One is the Appropriate Level of Protection (ALOP), which is a level of protection of human health established for a specific food-borne pathogen and this must be applied to the co-product stream or to the product that contains the co-product. An additional definition is the Food Safety Objective (FSO) which is the maximum...

New fields of application

The term 'pervaporation' comprises two Latin words 'per' (through) and 'vapor' (vapor, steam). Pervaporation is a separation process in which one 268 Handbook of waste management and co-product recovery Table 11.3 Some applications of reverse osmosis Concentrating and dematerializing of whey11,17 Other processes with animal proteins Concentrating of fruit and vegetable juices such as Reduction of alcohol in beer and wine21 Concentrating of wine22 Concentrating of tea23 Concentrating of...

Introduction fermentation biogas and biohydrogen production from food waste

Food processing waste has significant potential to pollute land, air, and water because of its high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and sheer volume. The COD concentration can be 90 000 mg L or more, which is more than 100 times greater than common domestic sewage. It may also have a moderately high salt or acidity content and it might be contaminated with pathogens. Generally, food processing waste does not contain significant amounts of toxic chemicals. The fact that food waste is generally...

Induced blanket reactor IBR

The IBR is an in-vessel high-rate (< 6 day HRT) anaerobic digester developed at Utah State University (Fig. 23.2). An IBR tank has a height Table 23.3 Characteristics of the UASB reactor High organic loading capacity Short HRTs High COD removal efficiency No need for support media Simple reactor construction Low energy demand Granulation process difficult to control Granulation depends on wastewater properties Granule floatation Restriction on nearly solids-free wastewater Sensitive response...

Sources of practical information service providers professional bodies EC projects and networks

DEFRA (Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, UK) (www.defra.gov.uk and especially www.defra.gov.uk environment energy index.htm). SEPA (Scottish Environment Protection Agency) (www.sepa.org.uk). European Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Bureau, Institute for Prospective Technological Studies producing BREFs (Best Available Techniques (BAT) Reference Documents) (eippcb.jrc.es pages FActivities.htm). ADAS, Insight and Solutions, Woodthorne, Wergs Road, Wolverhampton, WV6...

Key reasons to improve waste management in vegetable oil processing

There are several environmental and economic benefits arising from the application of new waste management processes. 540 Handbook of waste management and co-product recovery 20.2.1 Economic and environmental reasons In the case of olive oil, the application of the two-phase extraction process produces only a solid by-product that can be dried and extracted by solvent. The new DOR can be used for cogeneration of electric power, used in combination with saprobic fungi for removal of monomeric...

Utilizing part of the waste

There are three reasons to utilize some portion of the waste generated in fish processing. First, the removal of one specific type of waste may significantly reduce the total bulk that must be disposed of. This can reduce tipping fees or can bring the processor below a regulatory cap for dumping at sea. Second, processing one potentially valuable organ may increase revenue. Finally, pulling particular organs out of the mass of waste may increase the value of the remainder. All of these cases...

Disposal of waste

The dominant environmental problem caused by dairy processing is the discharge of large quantities of liquid effluent. Dairy processing produces waste from washing and cleaning steps, and from off-specification product. Examples of sources of waste from milk, cheese and dried powder processing are shown in Fig. 14.5. The effluent loads from dairy processing depend on the type of product being produced, the scale of the operation and whether a plant uses batch o Purge of product prior to CIP o...

Separation of anaerobic processes in reactor systems

Anaerobic bioreactors can be classified into two-phase anaerobic digestion (TPAD) and two-stage anaerobic digestion (TSAD). The TPAD system refers to the development of unique biomasses in separate reactors. The first phase is referred to as 'acid fermentation' and is designed to produce primarily VFAs, while the second phase is referred to as 'methane fermentation' because in this phase the VFAs are converted to mainly methane and carbon dioxide. Due to short SRT in the first phase, acidogens...

Functional ingredients from meat

Dietary proteins are known to possess a variety of nutritional, functional and biological properties. Nutritionally, the proteins are a source of energy and amino acids, which are essential for growth and maintenance. Functionally, the proteins contribute to the physicochemical and sensory properties of various protein-rich foods. Furthermore, many dietary proteins possess specific biological properties that make these components potential ingredients of functional or health-promoting foods....

Current status of waste problems faced by the dairy industry

Present Status Food Industry

The impact of dairy processing on the environment has been summarised in the schematic in Fig. 14.3. This diagram shows the inputs and outputs for a typical dairy manufacturing plant producing market milk, butter, milk powder and cheese. Inputs include the raw milk, other ingredients, water, energy, detergents, refrigerants and packaging. Outputs include dairy products a range of dairy liquid effluents such as cleaning-in-place (CIP) cleaning waste, cheese whey and spills air emissions such as...

Utilizing all the waste

There are three main categories of co-products that utilize all, or almost all, seafood processing wastes. These are compost, meals, and hydrolysates or digests. These products are often produced by independent entrepreneurs, who have the time and interest to learn the technology and to develop markets that, for the most part, have nothing to do with seafood. We will define each technology, explain how to get started on a small scale, and discuss the pros and cons of each. Composting is the...

Hightemperature shorttime extrusion

Extrusion cooking is arguably a combination process in its own right and has been demonstrated to be a useful process for the production of foods and feeds. The process converts biopolymers, e.g. proteinaceous and starchy materials, into a 'melt' for forming through dies (Smith, 1992). In the case of starchy materials the breadth of processing possibilities dictates that the extruder may merely compact the flour, grit or starch, or bring about disruption and degradation. Water solubility...

Sources for natural dyes results of a screening for sources in food processing

From a dyer's point of view the coloration technology itself may be more important than the source of the dyestuff,3 particularly when total costs are at comparable levels. One main benefit of synthetically produced dyes is their tinctorial strength. For an average colour depth of 2 , 2 g of synthetic dyestuff is used per 100 g cotton, while for a similar shade 100-300 g of dry plant material is required.3'7 Besides their different ecological profiles, natural dyes also have to compete with...

Environmental factors

Temperature is a key variable in biological treatment. Anaerobic digesters are generally operated in one of two temperature ranges mesophilic (3040 C) or thermophilic (50-65 C). Most anaerobic reactors are operated in the mesophilic ranges. Methane has been produced at temperatures of 10 C or lower, but for reasonable rates of methane production, temperatures should be maintained above 20 C. The rate of methane production approximately doubles for each 10 C temperature change in the mesophilic...

Recovery of functional biopolymers

The polysaccharides of the fruit and vegetable trimmings (pectins, cellulose and hemicelluloses), whose relative proportions vary with respect to the plant source, can be more or less selectively recovered from fruit and vegetable wastes for multiple food and non-food uses. Pectin is an extremely complex polysaccharide, composed of as many as 17 different monosaccharides which can be envisioned as a multiblock co-biopolymer (Figure 16.1). The simplest of these blocks is homogalacturo-nan (HG),...

Highvalue components and wholewaste exploitation

Many waste streams contain small levels of components that command an apparent and attractive market value. For example, phytochemicals from fruit and vegetable trimmings might be exploited for the production of nutraceuticals, cosmetics or even pharmaceuticals. There has been much interest and research dedicated to exploiting such components with a view to adding value to co-product streams (Waldron, 2004 Waldron et al, 2004). However, whilst it is often possible, and even relatively...

Effective implementation of measures to minimise waste

In addition to improving good housekeeping practices, source reduction methods that may easily be employed at food processing facilities include making process modifications, substituting more environmentally friendly raw materials, and segregating waste streams for reuse or recycling. After taking the first step of improving housekeeping, companies can move on to technology improvements and material substitutions. Such changes can require some capital outlay, however savings in waste...

Changes during fruit ripening

Fruit ripening encompasses both catabolic and anabolic changes. Many fruit store the imported products of photosynthesis (e.g. simple sugars) as the polymerized carbohydrate starch. Bitter- or astringent-tasting phenolic compounds are also often present in immature fruit. Cell walls of unripe fruit are ridged, and adjacent cells are held firmly together by pectic substances in the middle lamella between cells. Immature fruit are therefore not sweet, soft or pleasant tasting to potential...

Key reasons to consider using anaerobic processes

Anaerobic processes are regarded as the most efficient of biological technologies (Speece, 1996). In contrast to aerobic biological treatment, anaerobic fermentation processes do not require air input and generate considerably smaller amounts of sludge. Anaerobic treatment normally produces 10 times less refractory biomass than aerobic treatment. Under anaerobic conditions, the majority of food processing waste COD is converted to biogas (methane and carbon dioxide) as an end product. This...

Sources of further information and advice

Awarenet (2004), Handbook for the Prevention and Minimisation of Waste and Valorisation of By-products in European Agro-Food Industries, Deposito legal BI-223-04. REPRO web site http www.repro-food.net schweizer, t. f. and edwards, c. a. (Eds) (1992), Dietary Fibre - A Component of Food - Nutritional Function in Health and Disease, Berlin, Springer-Verlag. cho, s. and dreher, m. (Eds) (2001), Handbook of Dietary Fiber and Functional Foods, London, Marcel Dekker. Stephen, a. m. and dea, y. (Eds)...

Utilisation of whole whey

Whey is highly perishable and needs to be collected hygienically and utilised soon after manufacture. Whey is first clarified to remove cheese solids and pasteurised to stop starter culture activity. If these steps are taken, the whey can be used as food in a wide range of products, with the dairy manufacturer's choice determined by scale, availability of equipment and markets for the products. Most of the costs associated with processing whey arise from evaporation and drying due to the low...

Animal feed bans and specified risk material SRM

The appearance of mad cow disease or bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) during the 1980s has had an enormous and far-reaching effect on the processing of meat industry co-product materials. The BSE epidemic, first recognized in the United Kingdom (UK), has now been detected in the livestock of many countries (http www.oie.int eng info en_esbincidence.htm). The subsequent appearance of variant Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease (vCJD) in humans is due to the same agent that caused BSE in cattle (http...

Introduction and key issues

The history of food processing technologies is as long as the history of mankind itself. Our ancestors used different techniques to preserve and convert foods. One of the most important conversions is biocatalysis using enzymes or cells in food processing. From a historical perspective, acid proteases have been considered as the oldest enzymes used (Hofmann, 1974). One isolated enzyme of the group - chymosin, in the form of rennet - has been used for thousands of years. People in the...

Bloodderived coproducts

The principal components of meat are water, protein and fat, with a significant level of vitamins and minerals with a high bioavailability (Fernandez-Gines et al., 2005). Blood accounts for 3-5 of an animal's live weight and contains 18 19 protein, similar to that found in lean meat, with the protein contents of plasma and red blood cells (RBCs) being 7-8 and 34-38 , respectively. Blood is the first co-product obtained while processing animals for meat. Blood should be collected in a hygienic...

Hydrolysis and liquefaction

Hydrolysis and liquefaction are the breakdown of large, complex and insoluble organics into small molecules that can be transported into micro-bial cells and metabolized. Hydrolysis of the complex molecules is catalyzed by extracellular enzymes such as cellulase, protease and lipase. Essentially, organic waste stabilization does not occur during hydrolysis the organic matter is simply converted into a soluble form that can be utilized by the bacteria (McCarty and Smith, 1986 Parkin and Owen,...

Natural dyes in technical textile dyeing operations

In Section 19.2.1 the general aspects to be considered in textile dyeing are discussed. Section 19.2.2 presents the requirements defined by the dyeing process, and the selection criteria for dyes and mordants are highlighted in Sections 19.2.3 and 19.2.4. The selection of an appropriate dyeing procedure and the suitability of a certain dyestuff is determined by the fibre type to be dyed and the desired final properties of the product. In 2004 the total production of textile fibres reached a...

Whey protein fractionation

Following its introduction in the early 1970s, ultrafiltration of whey has grown to become commonplace throughout the dairy industry today. Ultrafiltration membranes with a molecular weight cut-off in the range of 10 000-30 000 Da are used to concentrate the whey proteins, while the lactose and minerals readily pass through the membrane into the ultrafiltration permeate. The ultrafilter concentrates the whey protein concentrate (WPC) to 15-20 total solids. The spray-dried WPC contains...

Continuously stirred tank reactor CSTR

The CSTR is also commonly called a completely mixed reactor. It is described here because it is so commonly used around the world. In the CSTR, the liquid or slurry stream is continuously introduced, and liquid contents are continuously removed from the reactor. Anaerobic treatment using a CSTR normally consists of a well-mixed reactor without solids recycling because all solids are in suspension and exit with the effluent. The SRT is equal to the HRT in this type of reactor. If operated...

Dairy processing overview

The dairy industry has long been directed towards maximising the recovery of complementary products from milk, wherein milk is separated and processed into a range of products that maximise the recovery of the various components of milk. At the most basic level milk can be separated to produce cream and skim milk. Cream can be converted into butter and buttermilk powder (BMP), while skim milk can be spray dried to SMP. Alternatively, milk can be processed into cheese with the whey converted...

Examples of phytochemical extracts from plant food wastes

Different extracts obtained from wastes are already in the market or are potential candidates to be in the market soon. From the olive-oil industry wastes, extracts enriched in the antioxidant hydroxytyrosol are already prepared and marketed, as antioxidants for food preservation or as ingredients for functional foods or nutraceuticals (Fernandez-Bolanos et al., 2002). Pomegranate tannins from fruit husks (a mixture of punicalagins and other ellagitannins) can be easily prepared and introduced...

Key reasons for use of supercritical fluid extraction SFE

Increasing public awareness about healthy, natural and non-toxic products, and strict environmental regulations have acted as an impetus for the supercritical fluid industry. Moreover, the pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, and food industries have also promoted developments in this area of research (Schneider et al., 1980 Stahl et al., 1988 McHugh and Krukonis, 1994 Rizvi, 1994 Clifford, 1999 Kiran et al., 2000 Mukhopadhyay, 2000). Interest in SFE for health and environmental reasons has resulted...

Introduction

Vegetable oils and fats are principally used for human consumption but are also used in animal feed, for medicinal purposes and for certain technical applications. The vegetable oil market is strongly correlated to the protein meal market as both are largely co-products resulting from the processing of oilseeds. Supply and demand conditions in one market affect the other. For 1999-2000, world production of edible oil was 86.4 million tonnes, consisting of 85.2 million tonnes of vegetable oil...

Overview

Food wastes and effluents are rich in biodegradable components with high biological oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) content. If they are unmanaged and untreated, their uncontrolled decomposition is hazardous to the environment due to the production of methane and toxic materials (Waldron et al., 2004). In order to reduce the impact of waste, a range of waste management strategies have been adopted at national and international levels. In the European Community (EC), a...

Demineralisation of whey

Whey is supersaturated with calcium phosphate and contains high levels of potassium and sodium. Calcium phosphate precipitation can cause problems such as fouling of the membrane or evaporator. High levels of minerals can inhibit lactose crystallisation which can adversely affect non-hygroscopic whey production and reduce yields and purity for lactose manufacture. The presence of high mineral levels limits the use of whey powder in infant formula and adversely affects the flavour and range of...

Process optimisation to minimise water use in food

Perry, The University of Manchester, UK 5.1 Introduction water use and wastage in food processing 90 5.2 How to minimise water usage and wastewater treatment - present state-of-the-art and future trends 93 5.3 Overview of selected case studies 100 5.4 Sources of further information and advice 110 5.5 References 113 Part III Key issues and technologies for food waste separation and co-product recovery 6 The importance of microbiological risk management in the...

Analysis of conventional technologies for treatment of food processing wastewater

In advance of building a wastewater treatment facility, a food industry should undertake an in-plant waste control programme in order to minimise the use of water, for example for cleaning, transportation and cooling operations, etc. (Carawan et al., 1979). Within a specific food processing industry, there may be a range of approaches to achieve this for example by substituting pneumatic transporting systems for water transporting and using nozzles that automatically shut off when released by...

Aerated lagoon treatment

Aerated lagoons are generally used where there is not sufficient land available for seasonal retention or land application, and economics do not justify Table 21.6 Efficiency of the activated sludge process for different food processing wastewaters Table 21.6 Efficiency of the activated sludge process for different food processing wastewaters and Pujol, 1996 Houbron et al., 1998 Brucculeri et al., 2005 an anaerobic or activated sludge system. Efficient biological treatment can be achieved by...

Reducing waste in vegetable oil production

The vegetal oil processing industry involves the extraction and processing of oils and fats from vegetable sources. The oils and fats are extracted from a variety of fruits, seeds and nuts. The preparation of raw materials includes husking, cleaning, crushing and conditioning. The extraction processes are generally mechanical (boiling for fruits, pressing for seeds and nuts) or involve the use of a solvent such as hexane. Residues are conditioned (for example, dried) and are reprocessed to...

Enzymatic processes and enzymatic extraction

Glucose is the most 'popular' conversion product from food wastes, since glucose is the monomer for cellulose and starch. Cellulose degradation is usually carried out by complex cellulolytic enzyme preparations (like Celluclast, or Rapidase, etc.), containing several types of cellulases. Trichoderma reesei (earlier Trichoderma viridae) are considered to be the best sources of cellulase enzymes. However, the mixture should often be supplemented with P-glucosidase enzyme to enhance the hydrolytic...

Coproduct recovery in dairy processing 1451 Whey

The principal by-product from dairy processing is whey from cheese and casein production, with 9 kg whey produced from each 1 kg cheese. Moreover, cheese production has been increasing and this increase is predicted to continue into the next decade, thus utilisation of whey will continue to be a pressing issue for dairy processors. The high BOD5 of whey (40 000 mg L) and of whey permeate (35 000 mg L) presents a major pollution problem (Mawson 1994). The current estimates for transporting whey...

Recovery of plantbased coproducts for use in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals

A wide range of plant-derived compounds with health-promoting properties and or their technological characteristics, is available for recovery and use in cosmetic and pharmaceutical formulations. Plant-derived polysaccharides, vegetable oils and plant-based antioxi-dant phenolic compounds are three of the largest groups of natural compounds that offer such potential because of their relevant beneficial properties. In this chapter, the current literature has been surveyed and the recently...

Introduction food processing waste the scale of the problem

The global food and drink industry is one of the largest industry sectors and is essential to all economies. This reflects its role in contributing to the basic needs and requirements of every living person (Maslow, 1970). Consequently, the last 50 years has witnessed an immense increase in the demand for food due to the rapid growth in world population (Fig. 1.1) and the associated increase in wealth. The response to these drivers has been an intensification of agriculture, food production,...

Biological basis of biowastes

Food processing waste is derived from the processing of biological materials and is, in the main, biodegradable. Biowaste is defined in the landfill directive as 'waste capable of undergoing anaerobic or aerobic decomposition such as food and garden waste, and paper and cardboard'. The waste may be derived from plant, animal, fungal and bacterial sources, with the plant and animal origins predominating. A list of key production processes that create waste streams has been identified in the...

Coproduct recovery in vegetable oil processing

As stated before, vegetable wastewater can be considered as an important source of valuable products, i.e. carbohydrates, phenols, lecithin, vitamin E, sterols and proteins. Visioli et al. (1999), in view of the need for upgrading by-products at all stages of the olive oil industry, investigated different procedures for the recovery of the active components of OMWW and compared the antioxidant and biological activities of various extracts. Glucose is the main soluble sugar present in olive pulp...

Definition of waste

The definition of waste has been surprisingly difficult to agree on. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the Secretariat of the Basel Convention and the EU Commission each has formally its own definition of waste, and information on these can be found on the website of the European Topic Centre on Resource and Waste Management (2006). According to this source, the 'most Table 1.1 Relevant EU legislation see AWARENET (2004) and Sanders and Crosby (2004) for further...

Overview of selected case studies

Various case studies have been published covering food processing technologies that require water and produce waste water. These include, among others, sugar production, beer brewing and fruit juice production. Process optimisation to minimise water use in food processing 101 5.3.1 Sugar plant case studies Zbontar Zver and Glavic (2005) presented a case study of a sugar plant processing approximately 4300 t of beet in a 24-h period. The beet processing season or campaign lasts approximately 3...

Microbiology of anaerobic biohydrogen production

Anaerobic hydrogen production can be divided into two main categories one uses photosynthetic bacteria cultured under anaerobic or semi-anaerobic conditions in light and the other uses anaerobic bacteria that produce hydrogen via fermentation metabolism in dark conditions (Benemann, 1996). Hydrogen production by the dark fermentation process is much simpler than the photo-biological process, and the fermentation process generates hydrogen from a large number of carbohydrates frequently obtained...

Case study of water and wastewater minimisation in a citrus plant

This case study describes a water and wastewater minimisation study carried out for a citrus plant located in Argentina (Thevendiraraj et al., 2003) using pinch technology (Wang and Smith, 1994) and its extensions (Kuo and Smith, 1998). Citrus juice processing plants utilise large quantities of fresh water. The objective of this study was primarily based on reducing the overall freshwater consumption and wastewater produced in this plant. The main products are citrus fruit juice (in...

Acidogenesis

The acidogenesis stage is a complex phase involving acid-forming fermentation, hydrogen production and an acetogenic (acetic acid-forming) step. Once complex organics are hydrolyzed, acidogenic (acid-forming) bacteria convert sugars, amino acids and fatty acids to smaller organic acids, hydrogen and carbon dioxide. The products formed vary with the types of bacteria as well as with environmental conditions. The community of bacteria responsible for acid production may include facultative...

Upgrading of the monooligomeric components

As stated previously, wastes from fruit and vegetable transformation contain mainly plant cell wall which is a very complex structure. Some of the cell wall components are usable in their monomeric or oligomeric forms. Hydrolysis of the cell wall is therefore required and enzymes are often used in this purpose. However, due to the complex structure of cell wall components, many enzymes are required to achieve their degradation. These enzymes are produced by several microorganisms and are the...

CIP cleaning solutions

Dairy equipment is regularly cleaned using clean-in-place CIP operations. CIP is a system of cleaning and sanitising based on circulating chemicals and water without taking the equipment apart IDF 1979 . The first step in the cleaning cycle is a water rinse, followed by a caustic wash to remove most of the organic deposit. After a short water rinse, an acidic wash is circulated to remove the mineral soils, followed by a sanitising step Henck 1995 . In the dairy industry, CIP operations make a...

Literature and conferences papers books relevant conferences and journals websites to study with a short evaluation

There are two main groups of conferences dealing with minimising energy use. The first deals with energy minimisation in general and includes the following conferences 82 Handbook of waste management and co-product recovery Table 4.5 Case studies completed by Linnhoff March American Crystal Sugar American Fructose American Maize Batchelors Unilever Birds Eye Walls Unilever British Gas Bass Canada EMR British Sugar Cache Valley Cheese Cadbury Schweppes Campbell Soup Cargill, USA Cargill,...

A case study sugar processing

Sugar manufacturing is a large industrial sector that has an important economic impact in more than 30 European countries. The total sugar output of Europe is about 30 million tonnes per year. Nearly two-thirds of this amount originates from EU countries, among which Belgium, the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Spain and the UK are the largest producers. The remaining one-third of the European sugar output is predominantly supplied by the New...

Worldwide dairy production trends 1421 Milk production

Global milk production continues to increase at over 1 each year, reaching 514 MT in 2004 see Table 14.1 . Within these figures the trends differ between regions, as some of the dominant producers are losing market share to new players, with the most rapidly increasing production occurring in Asia OECD 2004 . Europe EU-25 is the dominant milk-producing area with 143 MT or 23 of total world milk supplies in 2004 Table 14.1 . In recent years milk production in the EU has been starting to lose...

Nonblood derived meat coproducts

When meat animals are processed, considerable quantities of trim are produced which is sorted according to the lean meat content and sold to sausage makers or ground for hamburger meat. Surplus fatty trimmings are rendered to recover the fat from beef and lard from pork as tallow Clark, 2005 . Rendering involves cooking, usually by direct steam injection, followed by centrifugation and drying of the fat and protein fraction. The protein from edible rendering can be used in animal feeds, while...

Producing other chemicals and useful products from food waste

Although bioenergy, such as methane and hydrogen, may reduce the cost of food wastewater treatment, it cannot satisfy entirely the energy demands of our society. Therefore, the production of high-value chemicals from the organic material in wastewater might be more feasible than bioenergy production. Table 23.6 shows that 19 different useful products have been fermented from whey products with various types of organisms Yang and Silva, 1994 . Organisms listed in the table could most probably be...

Lactose from whey

Lactose is recovered from whey permeate as edible-grade lactose in most dairy manufacturing countries. Edible-grade lactose is used in infant formula, chocolate and confectionery, baked goods and as a flavour colour carrier Rajah amp Blenford 1988 . Pharmaceutical-grade lactose is further refined and converted into a range of products milled lactose crystals, spray-dried lactose, anhydrous P-lactose and micronised lactose. It is mainly used in pharmaceuticals as a tableting excipient, but also...

Introduction energy use in food processing

The production of food, which sustains the human energy balance, requires a considerable and continuous supply of energy delivered from natural resources, principally in the form of fossil fuels, such as coal, oil and natural gas. For example, a typical energy requirement for the delivery of 1 J in the form of food consumes almost 10 J from natural resources. In the production of food for human consumption, the processing of food and drink requires a considerable part of this energy see for...