Utilizing all the waste

Fish Ensiling

There are three main categories of co-products that utilize all, or almost all, seafood processing wastes. These are compost, meals, and hydrolysates or digests. These products are often produced by independent entrepreneurs, who have the time and interest to learn the technology and to develop markets that, for the most part, have nothing to do with seafood. We will define each technology, explain how to get started on a small scale, and discuss the pros and cons of each. Composting is the...

Cleaner production in the dairy industry

Cleaner Production is a preventative approach to environmental management that encompasses eco-efficiency, waste minimisation and pollution prevention. Cleaner Production is a forward-looking, 'anticipate and prevent' philosophy. Cleaner Production does not deny growth it merely insists that growth be ecologically sustainable (UNEP 2004). In this context, waste is considered a 'product' with negative economic value. Each action to reduce consumption of raw materials and energy, and reduce...

Introduction energy use in food processing

Composite Curve

The production of food, which sustains the human energy balance, requires a considerable and continuous supply of energy delivered from natural resources, principally in the form of fossil fuels, such as coal, oil and natural gas. For example, a typical energy requirement for the delivery of 1 J in the form of food consumes almost 10 J from natural resources. In the production of food for human consumption, the processing of food and drink requires a considerable part of this energy see for...

Continuously stirred tank reactor CSTR

The CSTR is also commonly called a completely mixed reactor. It is described here because it is so commonly used around the world. In the CSTR, the liquid or slurry stream is continuously introduced, and liquid contents are continuously removed from the reactor. Anaerobic treatment using a CSTR normally consists of a well-mixed reactor without solids recycling because all solids are in suspension and exit with the effluent. The SRT is equal to the HRT in this type of reactor. If operated...