Index

Note: page numbers in bold denote illustrations; those in italics, tables.

A/S selection, 267-8 acclimatisation, 137-8 acetic acid bacteria, 204

acid conditions see pH

Acontium cylatium, 203

adrenaline, 183

aeolian derelicts, 71

African sand grouse, 36

Alaskan blackfish seeDaHiapectoralis

Alaskozetes antarcticus, 162-3

alkaline conditions see pH

alpine see mountains altitudinal gradients, 258-9, 260

Alvinellapompejana, 83, 141-4, 143

anaerobic organisms, 18, 210-13, 273-4 see also anoxybiosis Anguina tritici, 99

anhydrobiosis, 49, 92-128, 120, 139, 265 and cold tolerance, 164 and humans, 126-8 and membranes, 112-13, 113 and proteins, 114 and survival in space, 106-8 and the nature of life, 104-5 and the origin of life, 230 and the survival of extremes, 105-6 anhydrobiotic organisms, 94-7 definition of, 93-4, 101-4 history of the study of, 97-101 in microorganisms, 125-6 in plants, 119-25 metabolism in, 101-4 recovery from, 116-19, 1124-5 structure in the dry state, 110, 111, 117 anoxia see anaerobic organisms anoxybiosis, 8, 212-13 Antarctic, 1, 29, 53, 53-64, 240

A/S selection in terrestrial organisms, 267 arthropods, 55, 162-3

dispersal of terrestrial organisms, 265 environments, 52-4 fish, 165-70, 167, 269-71 lakes, 58-9

marine mammals and birds, 62-4, 63 marine organisms, 60-4 microorganisms, 56-7, 125-6, 192 nematodes, 55, 56, 94, 156-7, 177-80, 179 terrestrial organisms, 54-60 Antarctic Hair Grass, 56 Antarctic Pearlwort, 56 antifreeze proteins and glycoproteins, 161-2, 168-70, 174-5, I90-i, 193, 196-7, 269-71 antifreezes, 161, 164, 252 ants, 38-9, I40-I Aphelenchoides parientus, I4I Aphelenchus avenae, 112 Apollo I2 mission, 244 archaea, 23, 82, 146-7, 147, 205, 206, 208-9,

Arctic, 64-9, 65, I53-4 arthropods, 67-8 fish, I65-7, I69, 269, 27I marine organisms, 68 plants, 66-7

terrestrial mammals and birds, 68-9 Arrhenius, Svante, 244 Artemia, 51-2, 95, 102-3, 106, 107, 112, 209,

212-13, 213, 264 Ascaris lumbricoides, 115, 212 astrobiologysee life, elsewhere in the

Universe Astrobiology Institute, 231 atmosphere early history of, 210, 226, 229, 273-4 shielding effect of, 2I5

Bacillus alcalophilus, 203 Bacillus spp., 9

Bacillus subtilis, 107 Baker, Henry, 99 Barrett, John, 102, 106 bears, 76-7

Belgica antarctica, 162 biodiversity see species richness black smokers, 82-3 Block, William, 162, 175 Boreogadus saida, 166, 271 Bowie, David, 233 Boyle, Robert, 153 brine flies, 141, 209 brine shrimps see Artemia Broca, Paul, 101 Brock, Tom, 145 Brown, Ian, 177 bullhead catfish, 137

capacity adaptation, 12-13, 59, 91, 93, 250 and extreme environments, 248-9 and high temperatures, 139, 146 and low temperatures, 194-5 in deserts, 30-1 carbonaceous chondrites, 227 carrots, 190 Cary, Craig, 142 Caspian Sea, 50 Cassini spacecraft, 243 catalase, 122, 210

Celatoblatta quinquemaculata, 172

Chen, Liangbiao, 269, 270

Cheng, Chi-Hing, 269, 270

chilling stress, 157, 187

chinchillas, 73

Chrysemys picta, 171, 185-6

Chymomyza costata, 172

classification of living organisms, 19-24, 21,

Clegg, James, 102, 112, 212 cold coma and cold stupor, 2, 3 cold hardening in plants, 189-91 Cold Lazarus, 150 cold seeps, 83-4 cold tolerance in animals, 151-86 in microorganisms, 191-4 in plants, 186-91 strategies, 155-7

conifers, 74

Conrad, Pete, 244

container habitats, 45 -6

Convey, Peter, 268

Costanzo, Jon, 181

crayfish burrows, 47

Crowe, John, 111, 114

cryobiology, history of, 151-4

cryonic suspension, 150-1

cryopreservation, 151, 197

189-90, 193, 253 cryptobiosis, 6-8, 7, 13, 212, 246-7, 277 cryptogamic crusts, 43-4 Cryptopygus antarcticus, 162-3 Cucujus clavipes, 156 Cyanidium caldarium, 146, 203 cyanobacteria, 44, 45, 52, 56-7, 87, 96-7, 107, 123, 249

Dallia pectoralis, 154 Davenport, John, 166 Dead Sea, 17, 50-1, 208-9, 260-1 Death Valley, 42, 141 deciduous trees, 74 decompression sickness, 199 Deep Rover, 80 deep sea, 77-84 and defining extreme, 247, 251, 274-5 and pressure, 198-202 organisms, 78-80, 200-1 see also hydrothermal vents and cold seeps DEEPSTAR, 200 deep subsurface, 84-7, 198 dehydrins, 123-4, :90

denaturation of proteins, 133-4, :39, :99, 202,

Dendroides canadensis, 156 desert, 27-44, 28 amphibians, 37-8, 47 birds, 36

invertebrates, 38-41, 40, 139-41, 140 mammals, 31-8, 135, 136 microorganisms, 43-4, 139 pavements, crusts and varnishes, 43 plants, 41-3, 141 reptiles, 36-7, 138 DeVries, Arthur, 167, 269 diapause, 75

2,3-diphosphoglycerate, 149 dispersal of extreme organisms, 8, 264-5 Dissosticus mawsoni, 167, 272 Ditylenchus dipsaci, 102, 106, 110, 117, 118 DNA

and anhydrobiosis, 111 and extreme environments, 256 and the definition of life, 221 and the origin of life, 224, 228 thermal stability of, 148 radiation damage, 107, 215 repair mechanisms, 215, 256 DNA polymerase, 149 dogs, 135

Douglas, Angela, 89 Doyere, PLN, 101 Dry Valleys, 1, 29, 54, 55, 94, 240 Duman, John, 156 Dunaliella parva, 51, 209, 264

earthworms, 93, 165, 180 ecological niche see life boxes ecology of extreme organisms, 257-68 ectotherms, 10, 75, 130, 132, 180 eelworm wool, 109-11 Ehrenberg, Christian, 101 electromagnetic spectrum, 214, 214 Ellesmere Island, 67 Emperor penguin, 62-3, 63 endolithic microorganisms, 44, 57 endotherms, 10, 130-3, 132, 154, 155, 188 enzymes and cold, 192, 195 and desiccation, 103, 111 and pH, 207 and pressure, 202 thermal stability of, 142, 146, 148 uses of extreme enzymes, 149, 195 ephemeral plants, 42 Eretmoptera murphyi, 162 Europa, 241-2, 242 Eurosta solidaginis, 172, 173, 175 evolution and extreme organisms, 268-76 and symbiosis, 88-9 and the definition of extreme, 271-6 and the definition of life, 221 of aerobic organisms, 273-4 of deep sea organisms, 274-5 of life onto land, 272-3

exobiology see life, elsewhere in the Universe extracellular polysaccharides, 126, 193 extrasolar planets, 243 extraterrestrial sources of organic compounds, 227 extratissue or extraorgan freezing, 189 extreme environments, features of, 89-91, 90,

247-9, 248, 263 extreme organisms, 248-51 and evolution, 268-76 and the origin of life, 230 animals in extreme environments, 250 definition of, 1-8, 246-7, 257, 271-6 ecology of extreme organisms, 257-68 physiological problems of, 251-7 terminology, 9-10, 11 extremophiles, 5-6, 6, 13, 139, 149, 219-20,

235, 277

extremozymes, 149, 255-6

fatty acids, 147, 190, 192, 201-2, 254 fennec fox, 135 Ferns, Donald, 178 fibrinogen, 184 flamingos, 52 Folsomia candida, 253 Fontana, Felice, 100 Franklin, Sir John, 154 freeze avoidance, 157-70 in fish, 165 -70 in insects, 158-65, 162 in nematodes, 163-4 in plants, 188 freeze concentration effect, 150-1, 152, 173,

174, 188-9 freezing damage, 3, 150-1 freezing tolerance, 155, 170-86 in insects, 172-6, 176 in intertidal invertebrates, 176-7 in microorganisms, 193 in nematodes, 177-80, 179 in plants, 188-91 in vertebrates, 154, 180-6, 185 frogs and toads, 37-8, 47, 93, 215

freezing tolerance in, 180-5, ^5 fumaroles, 145 Fusarium spp., 194

Galileo spacecraft, 241

garter snake see Thamnophis sirtalis geological time scale, 225 giant lobelias and groundsels, 71, 72 giant tube worms see Vestimeniferans glass formation, 114, 122, 124, 126, 189 Globodera rostochiensis, 164 glycerol and anhydrobiosis, 112 and cold tolerance, 161, 173 and osmotic stress, 209 Gobi Desert, 28, 29 Gold, Tom, 86

goldenrod gall fly see Eurosta solidaginis Gomphiocephalus hodgsoni, 160 Grassle, Fred, 79

Gynaephora groenlandica, 67, 172

Haldane, JBS, 92 halobacteria, 51, 209 Halobacterium halobium, 51 halophilic organisms, 207-10 heat coma and heat stupor, 2, 3 heat shock response, 137 heavy high-energy particles, 107-8 heavy metals, 217

Helicobacter pylori, 203, 205-6, 206, 207 Heliomyza borealis, 175 Hemideina maori, 172-3, 175 Hesiocaeca methanicola, 84 Hessler, Bob, 79 hibernation, 68, 76-7, 94, 180 Hinton, Howard, 105, 230 histones, 149, 257 Holmstrup, Martin, 165 honeybees, 133

hot springs, 87, 139, 141, 144-5 Horwarth, Kathy, 156 Hubble Space Telescope, 232, 243 hummingbirds, 131

hydrothermal vents and their organisms, 80-3, 81, 88, 141-4, 145, 205, 219, 227,

264-5

Hyla spp., 181 Hyla versicolor, 183

hyperthermophiles, 145-8, 201, 205, 229, 254,

HZE particles see heavy high-energy particles ice cream, 174, 196 icefish, 170

ice-nucleating bacteria, 182, 193-4, 195-6 fungi, 194

proteins, 173, 177, 182 ice nucleation, 157-8, 159-61, 173 induced thermotolerance see heat shock response inoculative freezing, 156, 163-5, :78 insects alpine insects, 72-3

and anhydrobiosis, 94-5, 95, 116

cold tolerance of, 153, 156, 158-63, 162,

172-6, 176 in deserts, 38-41, 47, 140-1 in hot springs, 141

in the Arctic and Antarctic, 67-8, 161, 162, 172,173,175 interplanetary transfer of organisms, 244-5 intracellular freezing, 172, 175, 178-80, 179,

193 Io, 241

Joyce, Gerald, 221

Jupiter, and its moons, 240-2, 242

K selection, 267 kangaroo-rats, 36 Keilin, David, 97 kopjes, 49

Kristensen, Reinherdt, 106

lag phase, 117-18, 125 Lake Nakuru, 52 Lake Vanda, 57-8 Lake Vostok, 58-9, 241-2 larch, 74

latitudinal gradients, 258-9, 258 Lee, Rick, 175, 181 Leeuwenhoek, Antoni van, 45, 97 lichens, 22, 45, 55-6, 59, 66, 96 life definitions of, 220-1 elsewhere in the Universe, 60, 230-44 necessities for, 18-19, 221-4 origins of, 224-30 life boxes, 4-8, 5-7, 246-7, 271-2, 275-6, 276 Life in Extreme Environments Programme,

231 Linnaeus, 19 Littorina littorea, 176

locusts, 39

Long Duration Exposure Facility, 106-7 longevity of organisms, 8-9 Lowell, Percival, 233 lungfish, 47-8, 48

McKay, David, 238 Maciolek, Nancy, 79 Maillard reaction, 114 Mallotus villosus, 166-7 Mariana Trench, 79-80, 200, 201 Mariner space probes, 233 Mars, 232-40, 236, 237

and Martian meteorites, 238-40, 239 Marshall, Barry, 206 Marshall, Craig, 179 Mauna Kea, 69 membranes and cold, 174, 190, 192, 255

and desiccation, 112-13, 113, 118, 124,

126 , 127 , 254 and heat, 146-8, 147, 254 and high pressure, 199, 201-2 and pH, 207

and salinity, 16, 207, 209 and the origin of life, 229 problems with, 253-4 methane hydrates, 83-4 meteorites, Martian, 238-40, 239 Micrococcusradiodurans, 216 migration, 10, 31, 62, 64, 69, 75 Miller, Stanley, 225, 228 Miller-Urey experiment, 225-6, 226 mites, 55, 162-3

molecular chaperones, 126, 137, 144, 149,

190, 192, 213, 255 mosses, 20, 45, 55, 66, 96, 119, 120, 123, 124-5 Mount Cotopaxi, 69 Mount Erebus, 87 Mount Kenya, 69, 71, 72 mountains, 69-73

alpine environments, 69-70, 155 alpine insects, 72-3, 172-3 alpine mammals, 73 alpine plants, 71, 72, 189 see also altitudinal gradients musk oxen, 69

mutations and stress, 214-15, 256-7 Myrothamnus flabellifola, 121 Mytilus edulis, 177

Namib Desert, 28, 29, 37, 40 nanobes, 240

Natronobacterium spp., 203 Needham, John, 99 nematodes and anhydrobiosis, 95, 99-100, 102, 106, 108-12, 109, 110, 116-19, 117,120, 126 -7 and anoxia, 212, 213 and pH, 204, 205

cold tolerance of, 153, 156-7, 164, 177-80, 179

in Antarctica, 55, 56, 57, 94 in deserts, 38, 139 in hot springs, 141 in the deep sea, 79 New Zealand, 144, 145, 172, 213 Niyogi, Dev, 262 Notothenioids see Antarctic fish nunataks, 54

Ocymyrmex barbiger, 140 oil deposits, 86 Onyx River, 57 Opuntia, 141

organ transplantation, 127-8, 184-5 osmolytes, 209, 252-3 osmotic stress, 16-17, 50-1, 207-10, 251-3 osmotically inactive water, 103, 171 Ostriches, 36

oxygen radicals, 122, 126, 210-11 ozone, 213, 215

painted turtle hatchlings see Chrysemys picta

Panagrolaimus davidi, 56, 156-7, 176,

177-80 panting, 34, 135 panspermia, 244 Parartemia zietziana, 261 parasites, 46, 87-8, 115-16, 205, 211-12 permafrost, 9, 66, 193 pH, 15-16, 202-7, 203 Photobacterium profundum, 202 piezophilic and piezotolerant bacteria, 200-2, 201

pioneer organisms, 276 pogonophorans see Vestimeniferans poisons, 216-17 polar see Antarctic and Arctic pollen, 95, 111 polynas, 68

Polypedilium vanderplanki, 49, 94, 95, 105, 106

Pompeii wormsee Alvinella pompejana potato cyst nematode see Globodera rostochiensis Potts, Michael, 128 Pouchet, Félix-Archimède, 101 Power, Henry, 153 prebiotic beach hypothesis, 228, 229 prebiotic organic compounds, 222, 224-8 prefreeze mortality, 157 pressure, 14-15, 198-202, 201 primordial soup, 226 productivity in extreme environments,

261-3, 262 protective dehydration mechanism of cold hardiness, 165, 189 proteomics, 122, 184 proton magnetic resonance imaging, 182 Pseudacris triseriata, 181 Pseudomonas radiodurans, 216 Pseudomonas syringae, 195 psychrophiles, 191-2 Ptarmigan, 68

Pyrococcus furiosus, 13, 149 Pyrodictium spp., 145 Pyrolobus spp., 145

radiation, 213-16

Rana sylvatica, 181-5, 185

Réaumur, René-Antoine Ferchault de, 153

recrystallisation inhibition, 174-5, :77, :80,

190, 196, 197 rehydrins, 125

remote operated vehicles, 79-80, 83 renaturation, of proteins, 134 resistance adaptation, 12-13, 91, 94, 249 and low temperatures, 178, 194-5 in Antarctic organisms, 59 in deserts, 31, 139, 140 resurrection plants, 95-6, 119-25, 121 Rhabdophaga strobiloides, 161 rhododendrons, 189 rhodopsins, 209 RNA world, 228 Road Runner, 36 Robinson, Bruce, 80 Roffredi, l'Abbé, 100

Ross, Sir John, 153 rotifers, 8, 95, 99, 100, 105 Rotorua, 144

ROVs see remote operated vehicles r selection, 266

Sahara Desert, 27, 28, 29

Salamandrella keyserlingii, 181

Salar de Uyuni, 50

Salt, Reginald, 158, 175

salterns, 208

Sanders, Howard, 79

Schiaparelli, Giovanni, 233

Schmid, William, 181

Scholander, PF, 166

sea-monkeys see Artemia

Semibalanus balanoides, 176

Shewanella benthica, 201

shrews, 68, 131

Signy Island, 162

siphonophores, 80

sitting tenant effect, 263

size, effects of, 24-5

sleep, 76

SLiMES, 86

SNOMAX, 196

snow algae, 57, 70

snow fleas, 195

snowy owls, 68

South Pole, bacteria at, 57

spadefoot toad, 37-8

Spallanzani, Lazzaro, 100-1

species richness, 257-61, 262

Sphicterochila boisseri, 139-40, 140

Spirulinaplatensis, 52, 203

sponge gemmules, 213

195, 253, 265 stomach, 86, 205-6 Storey, Ken and Janet, 181, 184 straggler organisms, 275, 276 Streptococcusmitis, 244 subsurface organisms, 85-6, 145 Sulfolobus, 205 sulphur bacteria, 19, 205, 217 supercooling, 157, 159, 160, 165-6, 188 superoxide dismutase, 122, 210 Surveyor 3, 244

sweating, 34, I35 -6 symbiosis, 87-9 Symplocarpus foetidus, 188

I27, I80

temperature, 13-14

effects on metabolism, 2-4, 3, I29 heat, lethal effects of, I33-5 high temperatures, I29-40 low temperatures, I50-97 regulation of, 129-33, *32, 135-6 temporary deserts and waters, 44-9 Tenebrionid beetles, 40 termites, 38-9 Terrepene carolina, I8I Thamnophis sirtalis, I8I thermal hysteresis proteins see antifreeze proteins and glycoproteins thermophilic microorganisms, I3, 23, 82, 87,

Thermoplasma, 205 Thermus aquaticus, I45 , I49 thiobacilli, 204, 217 Thiobacillus ferroxidans, 203, 204 Tidestromia oblongifolia, 141 Titan, 242-3 toads see frogs and toads torpor, 76

trade-offs by extreme organisms, 265-8, 268 trehalose, 254

and anhydrobiosis, 111-16, 113, 122, 126, I27-8

and cold tolerance, I6I, I64, I73 and heat, I37 trimethylamine oxide, 202 tubeworms see Vestimeniferans tundra, 65, 66, 70, 71 tun formation, 109, 110 Turbatrix aceti, 153, 203, 204 turtles, 171, 181, 185-6

underworld see deep subsurface Urey, Harold, 225

ultraviolet (UV) radiation, 107, 214, 214-15 Uwins, Philippa, 240

Venus, 232

Vestimeniferans, 81, 81-2 vicuñas, 73

Viking space probes, 233-5 vinegar eelworm see Turbatrix aceti volcanoes, 87, 144 Voyager spaceprobes, 231, 241

Wall, Diana, 94 Warren, J Robin, 206 water and life, 19, 89-91, 222-4 possibility of, on Mars, 235-8, 236, 237 problems with, 251-3 water replacement hypothesis, 113 Wells, HG, 233

willow cone gall fly see Rhabdophaga strobiloides winter, 73-7 winter rye, 190 Wohler, Frederich, 222 Worms in Space Project, 106

yeasts, 9, 20, 96, 111, 193 Yellowstone National Park, 145

Zare, Richard, 238

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