I used the following as general sources of information and inspiration Campbell, N.A. (1996). Biology, 4th edition. Menlo Park, CA: Benjamin/Cummings. Encyclopaedia Britannica® DVD 2000 ©1994-2000. Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. Madigan, M.T., Martinko, J.M. & Parker, J. (2000). Brock Biology of Microorganisms,

9th edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Postgate, J. (1994). The Outer Reaches of Life. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Wilmer, P., Stone, G. & Johnston, I. (2000). Environmental Physiology of Animals. Oxford: Blackwell Science.

The internet

Some websites to try include: NASA Astrobiology Institute Website NASA's own Astrobiology website has information on organisms and extremes Details of the Life in Extreme Environments Programme (US National Science Foundation) are at Astrobiology Web, Life in Extreme Environments (with numerous links) Explore the deep sea, courtesy of the University of Delaware Try this site for the deserts of the USA The University of Canterbury's Gateway Antarctica site has many links to Antarctic resources on the web The Roald Amundsen Centre for Arctic Research has links to Arctic sites

1 - Introduction: extreme life

Brown, D.H. (1956). Composition of Scientific Words. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press.

Hutchinson, G.E. (1957). Concluding remarks. Cold Spring Harbor Symposium on Quantitative Biology 22, 415-27. [The ecological niche.]

Kennedy, M.J., Reader, S.L. & Swierczynki, L.M. (1994). Preservation records of micro-organisms: evidence of the tenacity of life. Microbiology 140, 2513-29.

Parkes, R.J. (2000). A case of bacterial immortality? Nature 407, 844-5.

Precht, H. (1958). Concepts of the temperature adaptation of unchanging reaction systems of cold-blooded animals. In Physiological Adaptation, ed. C.L. Prosser, pp. 351-76. Washington: American Association for the Advancement of Science. [Capacity and resistance adaptation.]

Deserts, temporary waters and saline and soda lakes

Burgis, M.J. & Morris, P. (1987). The Natural History of Lakes. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Crawford, C.S. (1981). Biology of Desert Invertebrates. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Gauthier-Pilters, H. & Dagg, A.I. (1981). The Camel. Its Evolution, Ecology, Behaviour and Relationship to Man. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press.

Louw, G.N. & Seeley, M.K. (1982). Ecology of Desert Organisms. London and New York: Longman

Somme, L. (1995). Invertebrates in Hot and Cold Arid Environments. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Wagner, F.H. (1980). Wildlife of the Deserts. New York: Abrahams Inc.

Watzman, H. (1997). Left for dead. New Scientist, 8 February 1997, pp. 37-41. [The Dead Sea.]

Williams, D.D. (1987). The Ecology of Temporary Waters. London and Sydney: Croom Helm.

Overwintering, polar and alpine environments

Bonner, W.N. & Walton, D.W.H. (1985). Key Environments - Antarctica. Oxford and New York: Pergamon Press,.

Chernov, Y.I. (1985). The Living Tundra. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Fogg, G.E. (1998). The Biology of Polar Habitats. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Laws, R.M. (1984). Antarctic Ecology. London: Academic Press.

Leather, S.R., Walters, K.F.A. & Bale, J.S. (1993). The Ecology of Insect Overwintering. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Lyman, C.P., Willis, J.P., Malan, E. & Wang, L.C.H. (1982). Hibernation and Torpor in

Mammals and Birds. London: Academic Press. Mani, M.S. (1980). Ecology of Highlands. The Hague: W Junk bv Publishers. Sage, B.L. (1986). The Arctic and its Wildlife. New York and Oxford: Facts on File Publications.

Stonehouse, B. (1971). Animals of the Arctic: the Ecology of the Far North. London: Ward Lock.

Stonehouse, B. (1972). Animals of the Antarctic: The Ecology of the Far South. London: Peter Lowe.

Vincent, W.F. (1988). Microbial Ecosystems of Antarctica. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

In the depths

Fredrickson, J.K. & Onstott, T.C. (1996). Microbes deep inside the earth. Scientific

American, October 1996, pp. 42-7. Pain, S. (ed.) (1996). Unknown oceans. New Scientist supplement, 2 November 1996. Pain, S. (1998). The intraterrestrials. New Scientist, 7 March 1998, pp. 28-32. Robinson, B.H. (1995). Light in the ocean's midwaters. Scientific American, July 1995, pp. 50-6.

Suess, E., Bohrmann, G., Greinert, J. & Lausch, E. (1999). Flammable ice. Scientific

American, November 1999, pp. 52-9. [Methane hydrates.] Van Dover, C.L. (2000). The Ecology of Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vents., Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Life in life

Douglas, A.E. (1994). Symbiotic Interactions. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Matthews, B.E. (1998). An Introduction to Parasitology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

3 - Life without water

Barrett, J. (1982). Metabolic responses to anabiosis in the fourth stage juveniles of

Ditylenchus dipsaci (Nematoda). Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B216,159-77.

Barrett, J. (1991). Anhydrobiotic nematodes. Agricultural Zoology Reviews 4,161-76. Clegg, J.S. (1979). Metabolism and the intracellular environment: the vicinal-water network model. In Cell Associated Water, eds. W. Drost-Hansen & J.S. Clegg, pp. 363-413. New York: Academic Press. [The state of water and metabolism in desiccating Artemia cysts.]

Close, T.J. (1996). Dehydrins: emergence of a biochemical role of a family of plant dehydration proteins. Physiologia Plantarum 97, 795-803.

Copley, J. (1999). Indestructible. New Scientist, 23 October 1999, pp. 44-6. [Tardigrades.]

Crowe, J.H. (1971). Anhydrobiosis: an unsolved problem. American Naturalist 105, 563-73.

Crowe, J.H. & Cooper, A.E. (1971). Cryptobiosis. Scientific American, December 1971, pp. 30-6.

Crowe, J.H., Carpenter, J.F. & Crowe, L.M. (1998). The role of vitrification in anhydrobiosis. Annual Review of Physiology 60, 73-103.

Crowe, J.H., Hoekstra, F. & Crowe, L.M. (1992). Anhydrobiosis. Annual Review of Physiology 54,579-99.

Gaff, D.F. (1977). Desiccation tolerant vascular plants of Southern Africa. Oecologia 31, 95-109.

Gaff, D.F. (1997). Mechanisms of desiccation tolerance in resurrection vascular plants. In Mechanisms of Environmental Stress Resistance in Plants, eds. A.S. Basra & R.K. Basra, pp. 43-58. Amsterdam: Harwood Academic Publishers.

Hinton, H.E. (1960). Cryptobiosis in the larva of Polypedilium vanderplanki Hint. Journal of Insect Physiology 5,286-300.

Holmström, K., Mantyla, E., Welin, B., Mandal, A. & Palva E.T. (1996). Drought tolerance in tobacco. Nature 379, 683-4. [Genetic modification by the addition of genes for trehalose synthase.]

Horneck, G. (1998). Exobiological experiments in Earth orbit. Advances in Space Research 22, 317-26. [Bacterial spores etc. in space.]

Ingram, J. & Bartels, D. (1996). The molecular basis of dehydration tolerance in plants. Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology 47,377-403.

Keilin, D. (1959). The Leeuwenhoek Lecture. The problem of anabiosis or latent life: history and current concept. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B150, 149-91.

Oliver, M.J., Wood, A.J. & O'Mahony, P. (1998). 'To dryness and beyond' - preparation for the dried state and rehydration in vegetative desiccation-tolerant plants. Plant Growth Regulation 24,193-201.

Potts, M. (1994). Desiccation tolerance of prokaryotes. Microbiological Reviews 58, 755-805.

Roser, B. & Colado, C. (1993). A sweeter way to fresher food. New Scientist, 15 May 1993, pp. 25-8.

Virginia, R.A. & Wall, D.H. (1999). How soils structure communities in the Antarctic Dry Valleys. BioScience 49, 973-83. [Nematodes in the soil of the Dry Valleys.]

Wharton, D.A. (2002). Survival strategies. In The Biology of Nematodes, ed. D.L. Lee pp. 389-411. London: Taylor and Francis.

Wharton, D.A., Barrett, J. & Perry, R.N. (1985). Water uptake and morphological changes during recovery from anabiosis in the plant-parasitic nematode, Ditylenchus dipsaci. Journal of Zoology (London) 206, 391-402.

Womersley, C. (1987). A reevaluation of strategies employed by nematode anhy-drobiotes in relation to their natural environment. In Vistas on Nematology, eds. J.A. Veech & D.W. Dickson, pp. 165-73. Hyattsville, MD: Society of Nematologists Inc.

Womersley, C.Z., Wharton, D.A. & Higa, L.M. (1998). Survival biology. In The Physiology and Biochemistry of Free-Living and Plant-Parasitic Nematodes, Eds. R.N. Perry & D.J. Wright, pp. 271-302. Wallingford and New York: CABI Publishing.

Wright, J.C., Westh, P. & Ramlov, H. (1992). Cryptobiosis in Tardigrada. Biological Reviews 67,1-29.

Young, S.R. (1985). The dry life. New Scientist, 31 October 1985, pp. 40-4.

Brock, T.D. (1978). Thermophilic Microorganisms and Life at High Temperatures. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Cary, S.C., Shank, T. & Stein, J. (1998). Worms bask in extreme temperatures. Nature 391, 545-6. [Pompeii worms.]

Cossins, A.R. & Bowler, K. (1987). Temperature Biology of Animals. London and New York: Chapman and Hall.

Desbruyères, D., Chevaldonné, P., Alayse, A.-M. et al. (1998). Biology and ecology of the 'Pompeii worm' (Alvinella pompejana Desbruyères and Laubier), a normal dweller of an extreme deep-sea environment: a synthesis of current knowledge and recent developments. Deep-Sea Research II 45,383-422.

Morimoto, R.I., Tissières, A. & Georgopoulos, C. (1994). The Biology of Heat Shock Proteins and Molecular Chaperones. Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

Schmidt-Nielsen, K., Taylor, C.R. & Shkolnik, A. (1971). Desert snails: problems of heat, water and food. Journal of Experimental Biology 55, 385-98.

Seckbach, J. (ed.) (1999). Enigmatic Microorganisms and Life in Extreme Environments. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers

Wilmer, P., Stone, G. & Johnston, I. (2000). Environmental Physiology of Animals, Chapter 8. Oxford: Blackwell Science.

5 - Cold Lazarus

Block, W. (1995). Insects and freezing. Science Progress 78, 349-72.

Cannon, R.J.C. & Block, W. (1988). Cold tolerance of microarthropods. Biological Reviews 63,23-77. [Includes Antarctic mites and springtails.]

Carpenter, H. (1998). Dennis Potter: a Biography. London: Faber and Faber.

Costanzo, J.P. & Lee, R.E. (1994). Biophysical and physiological responses promoting freeze tolerance in vertebrates. News in Physiological Sciences 9,252-6.

Davenport, J. (1992). Animal Life at Low Temperatures. London and New York: Chapman and Hall.

Goodman, B. (1998). Where ice isn't nice: how the icefish got its antifreeze and other tales of molecular evolution. Bioscience 48, 586-90.

Holmstrup, M. & Zachariassen, K.E. (1996). Physiology of cold hardiness in earthworms. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A 115,91-101.

Hoshino, T., Odaira, M., Yoshida, M. & Tsuda, S. (1999). Physiological and biochemical significance of antifreeze substances in plants. Journal of Plant Research 112, 255-61.

Knight, J. (1998). Life on ice. New Scientist, 2 May 1998, pp. 24-8.

Lee, R.E. & Costanzo, J.P. (1998). Biological ice nucleation and ice distribution in cold-hardy ectothermic animals. Annual Review of Physiology 60, 55-72.

Lee, R.E. & Denlinger, D.L. (1991). Insects at Low Temperatures. London and New York: Chapman and Hall.

Li, P.H. & Chen, T.H.H. (1996). Plant Cold Hardiness: Molecular Biology, Biochemistry and Physiology. New York and London: Plenum Press.

Margesin, R. & Schinner, F. (1999). Cold-Adapted Organisms: Ecology, Physiology, Enzymology and Molecular Biology. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Margesin, R. & Schinner, F. (1999). Biotechnological Applications of Cold-Adapted Organisms. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Ramlov, H. (2000). Aspects of natural cold tolerance in ectothermic animals. Human Reproduction 15,26-46.

Sakai, A. & Larcher, W. (1987). Frost Survival of Plants. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Smith, A.U. (1961). Biological Effects of Freezing and Supercooling. London: Edward Arnold. [For historical accounts.]

Somme, L. (1995). Invertebrates in Hot and Cold Arid Environments. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Somme, L. (2000). The history of cold hardiness research in terrestrial arthropods. Cryo Letters 21,289-96.

Storey, K.B. (1999). Living in the cold: freeze-induced gene responses in freeze-toler-ant vertebrates. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology 26, 57-63.

Storey, K.B. & Storey, J.M. (1990). Frozen and alive. Scientific American, December 1990, pp. 62-7.

Storey, K.B. & Storey, J.M. (1992). Natural freeze tolerance in ectothermic vertebrates. Annual Review of Physiology 54, 619-37.

Vincent, W.F. (1988). Microbial Ecosystems of Antarctica. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Wharton, D.A. (2002). Survival strategies. In The Biology of Nematodes ed. D.L. Lee, pp. 389-411. London: Taylor and Francis.

Wharton, D.A. & Ferns, D.J. (1995). Survival of intracellular freezing by the Antarctic nematode Panagrolaimus davidi. Journal of Experimental Biology 198, 1381-7.

6 - More tough choices

Abe, F., Kato, C. & Horikoshi, K. (1999). Pressure-regulated metabolism in microorganisms. Trends in Microbiology 7, 477-53.

Bartlett, D.H. (1992). Microbial life at high pressures. Science Progress 76, 479-96.

Horikoshi, K. & Grant, W.D. (Eds.) (1998). Extremophiles: Microbial Life in Extreme Environments. New York: Wiley-Liss.

Horikoshi, K. & Tsujii, K. (Eds.) (1999). Extremophiles in Deep-Sea Environments. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Kushner, D.J. (Ed.) (1978). Microbial Life in Extreme Environments. London: Academic Press.

Madigan, M.T., Martinko, J.M. & Parker, J. (2000). Brock Biology of Microorganisms, 9th edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Postgate, J. (1994). The Outer Reaches of Life. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Randall, D.J. & Farrell, A.P. (eds.) (1997). Deep-Sea Fishes. Academic Press, London.

Schleper, C., Pühler, G., Kühlmorgan, B. & Zillig, W. (1995). Life at extremely low pH. Nature 375, 741-2.

Seckbach, J. (Ed.) (1999). Enigmatic Microorganisms and Life in Extreme Environments. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Boyce, N. (1999). The Martians in your kidneys. New Scientist, 21 August 1999, pp. 32-35. [Nanobes and nanobacteria.]

Brack, A. (Ed.) (1998). The Molecular Origins of Life: Assembling Pieces of the Puzzle. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Davies, P.C.W. (1999). Life force. New Scientist, 18 September 1999, pp. 27-30. [Origin of life.]

Davies, P.C.W. (1999). The Fifth Miracle: The Search for the Origin and Meaning of Life. New York: Simon and Schuster.

Falk, D. (1999). Alien haven. New Scientist, 18 September 1999, pp. 32-5. [extraterrestrial life.]

Hinton, H.E. & Blum, M.S. (1963). Suspended animation and the origin of life. New Scientist, 28 October 1965, pp. 270-1.

Jakosky, B. (1998). The Search for Life on Other Planets. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Malin, M.C. & Edgett, K.S. (2000). Evidence for recent groundwater seepage and surface runoff on Mars. Science 288, 2330-5.

Maynard Smith, J. & Szathmary, E. (1999). The Origins of Life: From the Birth of Life to the Origin of Language. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Tater, J.C. & Chyba, C.F. (1999). Is there life elsewhere in the Universe? Scientific American, December 1999, pp. 80-5.

Walker, G. (1999). Waterworld. New Scientist, 18 September 1999, pp. 41-3. [Europa.]

Water, M. (1999). The Search for Life on Mars. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Books.

8 - An extreme biology

Bayley, M. & Holmstrup, M. (1999). Water vapour absorption in arthropods by the accumulation of myoinositol and glucose. Science 285, 1909-11.

Bayly, I.A.E. & Williams, W.D. (1973). Inland Waters and Their Ecology. Hawthorn, VIC: Longman Australia.

Begon, M., Harper, J.L. & Townsend, C.R. (1996). Ecology: Individuals, Populations and Communities. Oxford: Blackwell Science.

Cheng, C.-H.C. (1998). Evolution of the diverse antifreeze proteins. Current Opinion in Genetics and Development 8, 715-20.

Cheng, C.-H.C. & Chen, L. (1999). Evolution of an antifreeze glycoprotein. Nature 401, 443-4.

Clarke, A. & Jonson, I.A. (1996). Evolution and adaptive radiation of Antarctic fishes. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 11, 212-18.

Convey, P. (1996). The influence of environmental characteristics on life history attributes of Antarctic terrestrial biota. Biological Reviews 71, 191-225.

Feder, M.E. (1999). Organismal, ecological, and evolutionary aspects of heat-shock proteins and the stress response: established conclusions and unresolved issues. American Zoologist 39, 857-64.

Goodman, B. (1998). Where ice isn't nice: how the icefish got its antifreeze and other tales of molecular evolution. BioScience 48, 586-90.

Hoffmann A.A. & Hercus, M.J. (2000). Environmental stress as an evolutionary force. BioScience 50, 217-26.

Kempf, B. & Bremer, E. (1998). Uptake and synthesis of compatible solutes as microbial stress responses to high-osmolality environments. Archives of Microbiology 170, 319-30.

Little, C. (1983). The Colonisation of Land: Origins and Adaptations of Terrestrial Animals. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Logsdon, J.A. & Doolittle, W.F. (1997). Origin of antifreeze protein genes: a cool tale in molecular evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 94, 3485-7.

Pain, S. (1996). Monster journeys. New Scientist supplement, 2 November 1996, pp. 15-17. [dispersal of hydrothermal vent fauna.]

Tunnicliffe, V., McArthur, A.G. & McHugh, D. (1998). A biogeographical perspective of the deep-sea hydrothermal vent fauna. Advances in Marine Biology 34, 353- 442.

Waterman, T.H. (1999). The evolutionary challenges of extreme environments (part 1). Journal of Experimental Zoology 285, 326-59.

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