Bibliography

General

I used the following as general sources of information and inspiration Campbell, N.A. (1996). Biology, 4th edition. Menlo Park, CA: Benjamin/Cummings. Encyclopaedia Britannica® DVD 2000 ©1994-2000. Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. Madigan, M.T., Martinko, J.M. & Parker, J. (2000). Brock Biology of Microorganisms,

9th edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Postgate, J. (1994). The Outer Reaches of Life. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Wilmer, P., Stone, G. & Johnston, I. (2000). Environmental Physiology of Animals. Oxford: Blackwell Science.

The internet

Some websites to try include: NASA Astrobiology Institute Website

http://nai.arc.nasa.gov/ NASA's own Astrobiology website has information on organisms and extremes

http://astrobiology.arc.nasa.gov/ Details of the Life in Extreme Environments Programme (US National Science Foundation) are at

http://www.nsf.gov/home/crssprgm/lexen/start.htm Astrobiology Web, Life in Extreme Environments (with numerous links)

http://www.astrobiology.com/extreme.html Explore the deep sea, courtesy of the University of Delaware

http://www.ocean.udel.edu/deepsea/ Try this site for the deserts of the USA

http://www.desertusa.com/index.html The University of Canterbury's Gateway Antarctica site has many links to Antarctic resources on the web http://icair.iac.org.nz/GAhome.htm The Roald Amundsen Centre for Arctic Research has links to Arctic sites http://www.arctic.uit.no/English/

1 - Introduction: extreme life

Brown, D.H. (1956). Composition of Scientific Words. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press.

Hutchinson, G.E. (1957). Concluding remarks. Cold Spring Harbor Symposium on Quantitative Biology 22, 415-27. [The ecological niche.]

Kennedy, M.J., Reader, S.L. & Swierczynki, L.M. (1994). Preservation records of micro-organisms: evidence of the tenacity of life. Microbiology 140, 2513-29.

Parkes, R.J. (2000). A case of bacterial immortality? Nature 407, 844-5.

Precht, H. (1958). Concepts of the temperature adaptation of unchanging reaction systems of cold-blooded animals. In Physiological Adaptation, ed. C.L. Prosser, pp. 351-76. Washington: American Association for the Advancement of Science. [Capacity and resistance adaptation.]

Deserts, temporary waters and saline and soda lakes

Burgis, M.J. & Morris, P. (1987). The Natural History of Lakes. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Crawford, C.S. (1981). Biology of Desert Invertebrates. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Gauthier-Pilters, H. & Dagg, A.I. (1981). The Camel. Its Evolution, Ecology, Behaviour and Relationship to Man. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press.

Louw, G.N. & Seeley, M.K. (1982). Ecology of Desert Organisms. London and New York: Longman

Somme, L. (1995). Invertebrates in Hot and Cold Arid Environments. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Wagner, F.H. (1980). Wildlife of the Deserts. New York: Abrahams Inc.

Watzman, H. (1997). Left for dead. New Scientist, 8 February 1997, pp. 37-41. [The Dead Sea.]

Williams, D.D. (1987). The Ecology of Temporary Waters. London and Sydney: Croom Helm.

Overwintering, polar and alpine environments

Bonner, W.N. & Walton, D.W.H. (1985). Key Environments - Antarctica. Oxford and New York: Pergamon Press,.

Chernov, Y.I. (1985). The Living Tundra. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Fogg, G.E. (1998). The Biology of Polar Habitats. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Laws, R.M. (1984). Antarctic Ecology. London: Academic Press.

Leather, S.R., Walters, K.F.A. & Bale, J.S. (1993). The Ecology of Insect Overwintering. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Lyman, C.P., Willis, J.P., Malan, E. & Wang, L.C.H. (1982). Hibernation and Torpor in

Mammals and Birds. London: Academic Press. Mani, M.S. (1980). Ecology of Highlands. The Hague: W Junk bv Publishers. Sage, B.L. (1986). The Arctic and its Wildlife. New York and Oxford: Facts on File Publications.

Stonehouse, B. (1971). Animals of the Arctic: the Ecology of the Far North. London: Ward Lock.

Stonehouse, B. (1972). Animals of the Antarctic: The Ecology of the Far South. London: Peter Lowe.

Vincent, W.F. (1988). Microbial Ecosystems of Antarctica. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

In the depths

Fredrickson, J.K. & Onstott, T.C. (1996). Microbes deep inside the earth. Scientific

American, October 1996, pp. 42-7. Pain, S. (ed.) (1996). Unknown oceans. New Scientist supplement, 2 November 1996. Pain, S. (1998). The intraterrestrials. New Scientist, 7 March 1998, pp. 28-32. Robinson, B.H. (1995). Light in the ocean's midwaters. Scientific American, July 1995, pp. 50-6.

Suess, E., Bohrmann, G., Greinert, J. & Lausch, E. (1999). Flammable ice. Scientific

American, November 1999, pp. 52-9. [Methane hydrates.] Van Dover, C.L. (2000). The Ecology of Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vents., Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Life in life

Douglas, A.E. (1994). Symbiotic Interactions. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Matthews, B.E. (1998). An Introduction to Parasitology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

3 - Life without water

Barrett, J. (1982). Metabolic responses to anabiosis in the fourth stage juveniles of

Ditylenchus dipsaci (Nematoda). Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B216,159-77.

Barrett, J. (1991). Anhydrobiotic nematodes. Agricultural Zoology Reviews 4,161-76. Clegg, J.S. (1979). Metabolism and the intracellular environment: the vicinal-water network model. In Cell Associated Water, eds. W. Drost-Hansen & J.S. Clegg, pp. 363-413. New York: Academic Press. [The state of water and metabolism in desiccating Artemia cysts.]

Close, T.J. (1996). Dehydrins: emergence of a biochemical role of a family of plant dehydration proteins. Physiologia Plantarum 97, 795-803.

Copley, J. (1999). Indestructible. New Scientist, 23 October 1999, pp. 44-6. [Tardigrades.]

Crowe, J.H. (1971). Anhydrobiosis: an unsolved problem. American Naturalist 105, 563-73.

Crowe, J.H. & Cooper, A.E. (1971). Cryptobiosis. Scientific American, December 1971, pp. 30-6.

Crowe, J.H., Carpenter, J.F. & Crowe, L.M. (1998). The role of vitrification in anhydrobiosis. Annual Review of Physiology 60, 73-103.

Crowe, J.H., Hoekstra, F. & Crowe, L.M. (1992). Anhydrobiosis. Annual Review of Physiology 54,579-99.

Gaff, D.F. (1977). Desiccation tolerant vascular plants of Southern Africa. Oecologia 31, 95-109.

Gaff, D.F. (1997). Mechanisms of desiccation tolerance in resurrection vascular plants. In Mechanisms of Environmental Stress Resistance in Plants, eds. A.S. Basra & R.K. Basra, pp. 43-58. Amsterdam: Harwood Academic Publishers.

Hinton, H.E. (1960). Cryptobiosis in the larva of Polypedilium vanderplanki Hint. Journal of Insect Physiology 5,286-300.

Holmström, K., Mantyla, E., Welin, B., Mandal, A. & Palva E.T. (1996). Drought tolerance in tobacco. Nature 379, 683-4. [Genetic modification by the addition of genes for trehalose synthase.]

Horneck, G. (1998). Exobiological experiments in Earth orbit. Advances in Space Research 22, 317-26. [Bacterial spores etc. in space.]

Ingram, J. & Bartels, D. (1996). The molecular basis of dehydration tolerance in plants. Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology 47,377-403.

Keilin, D. (1959). The Leeuwenhoek Lecture. The problem of anabiosis or latent life: history and current concept. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B150, 149-91.

Oliver, M.J., Wood, A.J. & O'Mahony, P. (1998). 'To dryness and beyond' - preparation for the dried state and rehydration in vegetative desiccation-tolerant plants. Plant Growth Regulation 24,193-201.

Potts, M. (1994). Desiccation tolerance of prokaryotes. Microbiological Reviews 58, 755-805.

Roser, B. & Colado, C. (1993). A sweeter way to fresher food. New Scientist, 15 May 1993, pp. 25-8.

Virginia, R.A. & Wall, D.H. (1999). How soils structure communities in the Antarctic Dry Valleys. BioScience 49, 973-83. [Nematodes in the soil of the Dry Valleys.]

Wharton, D.A. (2002). Survival strategies. In The Biology of Nematodes, ed. D.L. Lee pp. 389-411. London: Taylor and Francis.

Wharton, D.A., Barrett, J. & Perry, R.N. (1985). Water uptake and morphological changes during recovery from anabiosis in the plant-parasitic nematode, Ditylenchus dipsaci. Journal of Zoology (London) 206, 391-402.

Womersley, C. (1987). A reevaluation of strategies employed by nematode anhy-drobiotes in relation to their natural environment. In Vistas on Nematology, eds. J.A. Veech & D.W. Dickson, pp. 165-73. Hyattsville, MD: Society of Nematologists Inc.

Womersley, C.Z., Wharton, D.A. & Higa, L.M. (1998). Survival biology. In The Physiology and Biochemistry of Free-Living and Plant-Parasitic Nematodes, Eds. R.N. Perry & D.J. Wright, pp. 271-302. Wallingford and New York: CABI Publishing.

Wright, J.C., Westh, P. & Ramlov, H. (1992). Cryptobiosis in Tardigrada. Biological Reviews 67,1-29.

Young, S.R. (1985). The dry life. New Scientist, 31 October 1985, pp. 40-4.

Brock, T.D. (1978). Thermophilic Microorganisms and Life at High Temperatures. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Cary, S.C., Shank, T. & Stein, J. (1998). Worms bask in extreme temperatures. Nature 391, 545-6. [Pompeii worms.]

Cossins, A.R. & Bowler, K. (1987). Temperature Biology of Animals. London and New York: Chapman and Hall.

Desbruyères, D., Chevaldonné, P., Alayse, A.-M. et al. (1998). Biology and ecology of the 'Pompeii worm' (Alvinella pompejana Desbruyères and Laubier), a normal dweller of an extreme deep-sea environment: a synthesis of current knowledge and recent developments. Deep-Sea Research II 45,383-422.

Morimoto, R.I., Tissières, A. & Georgopoulos, C. (1994). The Biology of Heat Shock Proteins and Molecular Chaperones. Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

Schmidt-Nielsen, K., Taylor, C.R. & Shkolnik, A. (1971). Desert snails: problems of heat, water and food. Journal of Experimental Biology 55, 385-98.

Seckbach, J. (ed.) (1999). Enigmatic Microorganisms and Life in Extreme Environments. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers

Wilmer, P., Stone, G. & Johnston, I. (2000). Environmental Physiology of Animals, Chapter 8. Oxford: Blackwell Science.

5 - Cold Lazarus

Block, W. (1995). Insects and freezing. Science Progress 78, 349-72.

Cannon, R.J.C. & Block, W. (1988). Cold tolerance of microarthropods. Biological Reviews 63,23-77. [Includes Antarctic mites and springtails.]

Carpenter, H. (1998). Dennis Potter: a Biography. London: Faber and Faber.

Costanzo, J.P. & Lee, R.E. (1994). Biophysical and physiological responses promoting freeze tolerance in vertebrates. News in Physiological Sciences 9,252-6.

Davenport, J. (1992). Animal Life at Low Temperatures. London and New York: Chapman and Hall.

Goodman, B. (1998). Where ice isn't nice: how the icefish got its antifreeze and other tales of molecular evolution. Bioscience 48, 586-90.

Holmstrup, M. & Zachariassen, K.E. (1996). Physiology of cold hardiness in earthworms. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A 115,91-101.

Hoshino, T., Odaira, M., Yoshida, M. & Tsuda, S. (1999). Physiological and biochemical significance of antifreeze substances in plants. Journal of Plant Research 112, 255-61.

Knight, J. (1998). Life on ice. New Scientist, 2 May 1998, pp. 24-8.

Lee, R.E. & Costanzo, J.P. (1998). Biological ice nucleation and ice distribution in cold-hardy ectothermic animals. Annual Review of Physiology 60, 55-72.

Lee, R.E. & Denlinger, D.L. (1991). Insects at Low Temperatures. London and New York: Chapman and Hall.

Li, P.H. & Chen, T.H.H. (1996). Plant Cold Hardiness: Molecular Biology, Biochemistry and Physiology. New York and London: Plenum Press.

Margesin, R. & Schinner, F. (1999). Cold-Adapted Organisms: Ecology, Physiology, Enzymology and Molecular Biology. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Margesin, R. & Schinner, F. (1999). Biotechnological Applications of Cold-Adapted Organisms. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Ramlov, H. (2000). Aspects of natural cold tolerance in ectothermic animals. Human Reproduction 15,26-46.

Sakai, A. & Larcher, W. (1987). Frost Survival of Plants. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Smith, A.U. (1961). Biological Effects of Freezing and Supercooling. London: Edward Arnold. [For historical accounts.]

Somme, L. (1995). Invertebrates in Hot and Cold Arid Environments. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Somme, L. (2000). The history of cold hardiness research in terrestrial arthropods. Cryo Letters 21,289-96.

Storey, K.B. (1999). Living in the cold: freeze-induced gene responses in freeze-toler-ant vertebrates. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology 26, 57-63.

Storey, K.B. & Storey, J.M. (1990). Frozen and alive. Scientific American, December 1990, pp. 62-7.

Storey, K.B. & Storey, J.M. (1992). Natural freeze tolerance in ectothermic vertebrates. Annual Review of Physiology 54, 619-37.

Vincent, W.F. (1988). Microbial Ecosystems of Antarctica. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Wharton, D.A. (2002). Survival strategies. In The Biology of Nematodes ed. D.L. Lee, pp. 389-411. London: Taylor and Francis.

Wharton, D.A. & Ferns, D.J. (1995). Survival of intracellular freezing by the Antarctic nematode Panagrolaimus davidi. Journal of Experimental Biology 198, 1381-7.

6 - More tough choices

Abe, F., Kato, C. & Horikoshi, K. (1999). Pressure-regulated metabolism in microorganisms. Trends in Microbiology 7, 477-53.

Bartlett, D.H. (1992). Microbial life at high pressures. Science Progress 76, 479-96.

Horikoshi, K. & Grant, W.D. (Eds.) (1998). Extremophiles: Microbial Life in Extreme Environments. New York: Wiley-Liss.

Horikoshi, K. & Tsujii, K. (Eds.) (1999). Extremophiles in Deep-Sea Environments. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Kushner, D.J. (Ed.) (1978). Microbial Life in Extreme Environments. London: Academic Press.

Madigan, M.T., Martinko, J.M. & Parker, J. (2000). Brock Biology of Microorganisms, 9th edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Postgate, J. (1994). The Outer Reaches of Life. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Randall, D.J. & Farrell, A.P. (eds.) (1997). Deep-Sea Fishes. Academic Press, London.

Schleper, C., Pühler, G., Kühlmorgan, B. & Zillig, W. (1995). Life at extremely low pH. Nature 375, 741-2.

Seckbach, J. (Ed.) (1999). Enigmatic Microorganisms and Life in Extreme Environments. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Boyce, N. (1999). The Martians in your kidneys. New Scientist, 21 August 1999, pp. 32-35. [Nanobes and nanobacteria.]

Brack, A. (Ed.) (1998). The Molecular Origins of Life: Assembling Pieces of the Puzzle. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Davies, P.C.W. (1999). Life force. New Scientist, 18 September 1999, pp. 27-30. [Origin of life.]

Davies, P.C.W. (1999). The Fifth Miracle: The Search for the Origin and Meaning of Life. New York: Simon and Schuster.

Falk, D. (1999). Alien haven. New Scientist, 18 September 1999, pp. 32-5. [extraterrestrial life.]

Hinton, H.E. & Blum, M.S. (1963). Suspended animation and the origin of life. New Scientist, 28 October 1965, pp. 270-1.

Jakosky, B. (1998). The Search for Life on Other Planets. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Malin, M.C. & Edgett, K.S. (2000). Evidence for recent groundwater seepage and surface runoff on Mars. Science 288, 2330-5.

Maynard Smith, J. & Szathmary, E. (1999). The Origins of Life: From the Birth of Life to the Origin of Language. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Tater, J.C. & Chyba, C.F. (1999). Is there life elsewhere in the Universe? Scientific American, December 1999, pp. 80-5.

Walker, G. (1999). Waterworld. New Scientist, 18 September 1999, pp. 41-3. [Europa.]

Water, M. (1999). The Search for Life on Mars. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Books.

8 - An extreme biology

Bayley, M. & Holmstrup, M. (1999). Water vapour absorption in arthropods by the accumulation of myoinositol and glucose. Science 285, 1909-11.

Bayly, I.A.E. & Williams, W.D. (1973). Inland Waters and Their Ecology. Hawthorn, VIC: Longman Australia.

Begon, M., Harper, J.L. & Townsend, C.R. (1996). Ecology: Individuals, Populations and Communities. Oxford: Blackwell Science.

Cheng, C.-H.C. (1998). Evolution of the diverse antifreeze proteins. Current Opinion in Genetics and Development 8, 715-20.

Cheng, C.-H.C. & Chen, L. (1999). Evolution of an antifreeze glycoprotein. Nature 401, 443-4.

Clarke, A. & Jonson, I.A. (1996). Evolution and adaptive radiation of Antarctic fishes. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 11, 212-18.

Convey, P. (1996). The influence of environmental characteristics on life history attributes of Antarctic terrestrial biota. Biological Reviews 71, 191-225.

Feder, M.E. (1999). Organismal, ecological, and evolutionary aspects of heat-shock proteins and the stress response: established conclusions and unresolved issues. American Zoologist 39, 857-64.

Goodman, B. (1998). Where ice isn't nice: how the icefish got its antifreeze and other tales of molecular evolution. BioScience 48, 586-90.

Hoffmann A.A. & Hercus, M.J. (2000). Environmental stress as an evolutionary force. BioScience 50, 217-26.

Kempf, B. & Bremer, E. (1998). Uptake and synthesis of compatible solutes as microbial stress responses to high-osmolality environments. Archives of Microbiology 170, 319-30.

Little, C. (1983). The Colonisation of Land: Origins and Adaptations of Terrestrial Animals. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Logsdon, J.A. & Doolittle, W.F. (1997). Origin of antifreeze protein genes: a cool tale in molecular evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 94, 3485-7.

Pain, S. (1996). Monster journeys. New Scientist supplement, 2 November 1996, pp. 15-17. [dispersal of hydrothermal vent fauna.]

Tunnicliffe, V., McArthur, A.G. & McHugh, D. (1998). A biogeographical perspective of the deep-sea hydrothermal vent fauna. Advances in Marine Biology 34, 353- 442.

Waterman, T.H. (1999). The evolutionary challenges of extreme environments (part 1). Journal of Experimental Zoology 285, 326-59.

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