Sterculiaceae

A.Chev.

Description

Guild: sb

Life form: small arching tree Max. height: 15 m (FWTA) Max. diameter: data unavailable Leaf: alternate, simple, oblong, mesophyll (3.512.5 x 10-34 cm), entire

Inflorescence: axillary, several flowers clustered together

Flower: small to medium-sized; bowl-shaped; corolla yellowish with purple streaks Fruit: dry dehiscent (capsule), ellipsoid (1.5 cm long), 5-ribbed, greenish white; longitudinally furrowed

Seed: medium-sized

Other: it has a peculiar life form. Branches bend and take root when they touch the ground, thus forming a dense monospecific thicket in the forest understorey, within which no herbs occur and natural regeneration of the emergent trees is impossible. It has distinctive hairy twigs.

Distribution

Continent: Upper Guinea endemic Upper Guinea: Liberia, Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana Distribution type: continuous, widespread, present in 22 30' cells, distribution range is 1040 km Forest type: wet evergreen forest, semi-deciduous forest, secondary forest. It can be locally abundant in wet evergreen forest and in swamps of semi-deciduous forests (Hawthorne & Jongkind 2004).

Habitat

Species occurrence increases significantly with rainfall higher than 1500 mm/yr (Chi2 test). Usually under the rainforest understorey where it can form thickets by vegetative spread, especially so on slopes (herbarium, Hawthorne 1995a). Often close to rivers or in swamps (Hawthorne & Jongkind 2004). On humid and sandy soils (herbarium).

Regeneration

It regenerates in shade both from seed, and vegetatively by layering of the branches (Hall & Swaine 1981).

Phenology

Timing: not clearly seasonal (Hall & Swaine 1981)

Data sources

FWTA, Jenik (1969), Hall & Swaine (1981), Hawthorne (1995a), Hawthorne & Jongkind (2004)

Altitude

River

Coast

Mean Annual Rainfall

Soil CMK

Soil WHC

>500m

>500m

<2km

<5km

Schizocolea linderi (Hutch. & Dalziel) Bremek.

Rubiaceae

Guild: sb

Life form: small shrub

Max. height: 3 m (Hawthorne & Jongkind 2004) Max. diameter: data unavailable Leaf: opposite, simple, elliptic, notophyll (2-5 x 615.5 cm), entire, coriaceous, hairy midrib above; interpetiolar stipules

Inflorescence: axillary, solitary flowers in clusters Flower: medium-sized; calyx light green, densely hairy; corolla white with a long tube; fragrant Fruit: fleshy, ovoid (0.7 x 1 cm), red with a white pulp, hairy; 1 seed

Seed: medium-sized (0.8 x 0.4 x 0.4 cm) Other: the stems, petioles and midribs are hairy.

Distribution

Continent: Upper Guinea endemic

Upper Guinea: Sierra Leone, Liberia, Côte d'Ivoire

Distribution type: continuous, regional, present in

15 30' cells, distribution range is 596 km

Forest type: wet evergreen forest, moist evergreen forest

Habitat

Species occurrence increases with rainfall higher than 2500 mm/yr to reach an optimum around 2800 mm/yr (logistic regression analysis, Chi2 test). It is found under deep shade and in wet places such as along streams and riverbanks (Chi2 test) (herbarium).

Phenology

Dispersal: probably by animals

Dispersal: probably by animals

Hawthorne & Jongkind (2004)

Data sources

Hawthorne & Jongkind (2004)

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