Regeneration

Seeds suffer heavily from predation. Germination is normal, with limited viability (from 100% at first, down to 5% success after 3 months, Sanders 1953). Under controlled conditions there is no difference between germination in the light and in the dark, although germination is strongly depressed in large gaps (Kyereh et al. 1993). It has a cryptocotylar epigeal reserve seedling type (cf. De la Mensbruge 1966). Seedlings require to be lightly shaded in nurseries, for about the first two years (Taylor 1960). When exposed to high irradiance they suffer from attacks by the Hypsiphyla moth larvae, and from leaf galls. In natural forest, seedlings can germinate and survive below a dense layer (Sanders 1953). Nevertheless seedling survival is encouraged by increasing light levels above those below the complete canopy. Seedlings are common in gaps below climber tangles (Sanders 1953). Saplings suffer from damage by porcupines, which eat the bark. Lancaster (1954) noted that germination (best in the shade) and seedling growth (best in "considerable light") requirements conflict.

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