Moraceae Wet Climates

Guild: np

Life form: small to medium-sized tree Max. height: 15 m (herbarium) Max. diameter: 25 cm (herbarium) Leaf: alternate, simple, elliptic-lanceolate to oblong-obovate, or 3-5 palmately lobed with a distinctly longer middle lobe, macrophyll (8-33 x 17-41 cm), serrate to dentate, coriaceous, sparse hairs above and below, white pubescent; petioles varying in length (up to 24 cm long)

Inflorescence: dioecious, axillary, branched; male inflorescence (3 x 11 cm), with flowers in globose groups; female inflorescence (1-2 cm) Flower: male flowers small (approx. 3 mm in diameter); female flowers small (4 x 3 mm), yellowish Fruit: fleshy, a cluster of several fruit parts, with quite different dimensions depending on the number of fruits (up to 11.5 cm in diameter, each fruit part approx. 2.5 cm in diameter), orange-brownish; 1 seed per fruit part Seed: large (1.5 x 1 x 1 cm) Other: occasionally with stilt roots.


Continent: Upper Guinea endemic

Upper Guinea: Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana

Distribution type: continuous, widespread, present in 34 30' cells, distribution range is 1406 km Forest type: evergreen (wet, moist, upland), semi-deciduous (moist, dry), dry forest, secondary forest (herbarium). In Ghana, it is found mostly in moist evergreen forests (Hall & Swaine 1981).


Species occurrence increases significantly with rainfall higher than 1500 mm/yr (logistic regression analysis, Chi2 test). Recorded in both dense forests (De Rouw 1991) and open areas (e.g. roadsides, forest edges). Commonly found in secondary forests (De Koning 1983). Sometimes along rivers. On sandy-stony or sandy-clayish soils (herbarium). In Ghana, its occurrence is strongly associated with base-poor soils (Hall & Swaine 1981, Swaine 1996).


It regenerates in shade (Hall & Swaine 1981).


Deciduousness: evergreen Dispersal: by animals (monkeys, elephants) Timing: not clearly seasonal (Hall & Swaine 1981); flowering period mainly from October to March (or May) (De Ruiter 1976)

Data sources

FWTA, De Ruiter (1976), Hall & Swaine (1981), De Koning (1983), De Rouw (1991), Swaine (1996), Hawthorne & Jongkind (2004)

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