Guild: sb

Life form: small to medium-sized tree

Max. height: 25 m (herbarium)

Max. diameter: data unavailable

Leaf: alternate, simple, elongate to oblong, mesophyll (4-11 x 12-32 cm), entire, coriaceous, glabrous; with paired stipules (approx. 0.2 x 1cm)

Inflorescence: axillary, unbranched (densely flowered, 6-12 cm long)

Flower: small; calyx green to brownish; corolla white

Fruit: dry dehiscent, subglobose (2.3 x 2.8 cm), reddish; 1 seed

Seed: large (up to 2 cm in diameter) Other: the bark has many small lenticels.


Continent: Upper Guinea endemic Upper Guinea: Liberia, Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana Distribution type: continuous, widespread, present in 12 30' cells, distribution range is 1004 km Forest type: wet evergreen forest, coastal forest, coastal savanna, secondary forest. In Ghana, only in wet evergreen forests (Hall & Swaine 1981).


The species is more common in the lowlands (logistic regression analysis) where it can be found in coastal forests and savannas. Its occurrence increases with rainfall (logistic regression analysis), especially when rainfall is higher than 2500 mm/yr (Chi2 test). It is occasionally found on riverbanks. In Ghana, it is found only on very acid, base-poor soils (Hall & Swaine 1981), but in Liberia and Côte d'Ivoire, it has been recorded on lateritic, loamy sands, sandy clay, and sandy soils (herbarium).


It regenerates in the shade (Hall & Swaine 1981).


Data sources

FWTA, Aubréville (1959), Hall & Swaine (1981), Hawthorne & Jongkind (2004)

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