Humiriaceae

Guild: sw

Life form: large tree

Max. height: 40 m (Voorhoeve 1965)

Max. diameter: 180 cm (Voorhoeve 1965)

Leaf: alternate, simple, narrowly ovate, elliptic to oblong, notophyll (2.5-6 x 6-15 cm), finely or distinctly crenate, fairly coriaceous, dull medium-green

Inflorescence: axillary, branched (dichasia)

Flower: medium-sized, corolla white

Fruit: fleshy, ellipsoid to subglobose (3 x 3.5 cm), green to yellowish; 1-3 seeds

Other: it has high buttresses, a dense, dark crown and a deeply and irregularly fluted and twisted bole.

The bark hisses when slashed. The slash may exude sticky amber-brown sap. The wood density is

Distribution

Continent: Benin to Angola (Voorhoeve 1965) Upper Guinea: Sierra Leone, Liberia, Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Togo (Voorhoeve 1965). It is very common throughout Liberia (Hawthorne 1995a). Forest type: wet evergreen forest (Hawthorne 1995a)

Habitat

It is usually a riverine or swampside tree (Keay 1989).

Regeneration

It has a phanerocotylar epigeal foliaceous seedling type (cf. Voorhoeve 1965). The natural regeneration is not very abundant as the seeds are often bored by insects (Voorhoeve 1965). Young trees higher than 1.5 m of this species are less strongly favoured by gaps than many other tree species, but are still disproportionately common there (De Klerk 1991).

Phenology

Deciduousness: evergreen (Voorhoeve 1965) Dispersal: by mammals or hornbills. Elephants relish the seeds, and eat them in large quantities. Although this does not improve germination, it makes the seedlings healthier at least in appearance (De Klerk 1991). Timing: flowering period from December to March; fruiting period from September to October (Voorhoeve 1965)

Uses

The bark is used to impart a bitter taste to palm-wine, and is an anticoagulant (Madusolumuo et al. 1991).

Data sources

Taylor (1960), Voorhoeve (1965), Keay (1989), De Klerk (1991), Madusolumuo et al. (1991), Hawthorne (1995a)

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