Life form: large tree
Max. height: 40 m (Voorhoeve 1965)
Max. diameter: 180 cm (Voorhoeve 1965)
Leaf: alternate, simple, narrowly ovate, elliptic to oblong, notophyll (2.5-6 x 6-15 cm), finely or distinctly crenate, fairly coriaceous, dull medium-green
Inflorescence: axillary, branched (dichasia)
Flower: medium-sized, corolla white
Fruit: fleshy, ellipsoid to subglobose (3 x 3.5 cm), green to yellowish; 1-3 seeds
Other: it has high buttresses, a dense, dark crown and a deeply and irregularly fluted and twisted bole.
The bark hisses when slashed. The slash may exude sticky amber-brown sap. The wood density is
Continent: Benin to Angola (Voorhoeve 1965) Upper Guinea: Sierra Leone, Liberia, Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Togo (Voorhoeve 1965). It is very common throughout Liberia (Hawthorne 1995a). Forest type: wet evergreen forest (Hawthorne 1995a)
It is usually a riverine or swampside tree (Keay 1989).
It has a phanerocotylar epigeal foliaceous seedling type (cf. Voorhoeve 1965). The natural regeneration is not very abundant as the seeds are often bored by insects (Voorhoeve 1965). Young trees higher than 1.5 m of this species are less strongly favoured by gaps than many other tree species, but are still disproportionately common there (De Klerk 1991).
Deciduousness: evergreen (Voorhoeve 1965) Dispersal: by mammals or hornbills. Elephants relish the seeds, and eat them in large quantities. Although this does not improve germination, it makes the seedlings healthier at least in appearance (De Klerk 1991). Timing: flowering period from December to March; fruiting period from September to October (Voorhoeve 1965)
The bark is used to impart a bitter taste to palm-wine, and is an anticoagulant (Madusolumuo et al. 1991).
Taylor (1960), Voorhoeve (1965), Keay (1989), De Klerk (1991), Madusolumuo et al. (1991), Hawthorne (1995a)
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