Habitat

Species occurrence increases significantly with rainfall to reach an optimum around 2500 mm/yr (logistic regression analysis, Chi2 test). Often in moist places of the forest or close to rivers (Chi2 test), on well-drained soils. Often in open places (e.g. clearcuts, forest edges,

secondary vegetation) but also present in dense forests. It has been classified both as a pioneer (De Koning 1983, Hawthorne 1995a) and as a shade bearer (Hall & Swaine 1981). More abundant in unburned forests (Hawthorne 1994). The species has a preference for infertile soils (Swaine 1996), and occurs on sandy and sandy-clay soils (herbarium)

Regeneration

It has a phanerocotylar epigeous foliaceous seedling type (De Koning 1983).

Deciduousness: evergreen Dispersal: by animals (primates)

Regeneration

It has a phanerocotylar epigeous foliaceous seedling type (De Koning 1983).

Deciduousness: evergreen Dispersal: by animals (primates)

spp

n

Open (n)

Altitude

River

Coast

Mean Annual Rainfall

Soil CMK

Soil WHC

C.c.

71

38 (37)

>500m

<2km

5km

D

M

W

VW

L

M

H

L

M

H

1

52

8

21

31

32

14

11

68

21

34

13

52

All

46333

37

4

39

7

37

29

24

10

6

69

25

36

13

39

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