Species occurrence increases with rainfall to reach an optimum around 2700 mm/yr (logistic regression analysis, Chi2 test). It is found in a wide range of moisture conditions. It is usually found in very moist places such as river borders, along streams, and swamps, but in Ghana it is common in dry semi-deciduous forests (Hall & Swaine 1981). Very often, it is found in shady places in the understorey but it is also common in forest gaps. Soils can be alluvial, clayish, loamy, sandy lateritic, or rocky (herbarium).
FWTA, Hall à Swaine (1981), Hawthorne (1995a), Dhetchuvi (1996)
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