Combretaceae

A.Chev.

Description

(e.g. rivers, waterfalls, and even swamps). Often on sandy soils (herbarium).

Phenology

Deciduousness: evergreen Dispersal: barochore

Timing: flowering period from August to February; fruiting period from October to March

Data sources

FWTA, Voorhoeve (1965), Hall & Swaine (1981), De Koning (1983), Vivien & Faure (1985), Tailfer (1989), Jongkind (1995)

Description

Guild: sb

Life form: large tree

Max. height: 30 m (herbarium)

Max. diameter: 90 cm (herbarium)

Leaf: alternate, simple, oblanceolate, mesophyll

(5-10 x 16-32 cm), entire, coriaceous, often with glands in the margin, glabrous, young leaves pubescent

Inflorescence: axillary, unbranched, with brown hairs

Flower: medium-sized (petals 5-7 mm long); bisexual; corolla white; filaments white and glabrous; anthers yellow and septate Fruit: dry indehiscent, resembling a large gall (5.5 x 4 x 3.5 cm), subglobose, sessile, succulent, glabrous, brown; 1 seed

Seed: very large (5 cm), red, resembles cola nut Other: a large cylindrical tree with a narrow, dense crown. The bark is grey and exudes a translucent jelly. The young epicotyl of seedlings is wine-red. The wood density is 0.69 g/cm3.

Distribution

Continent: Upper Guinea endemic

Upper Guinea: Sierra Leone, Liberia, Côte d'Ivoire,

Ghana

Distribution type: continental disjunct, in Upper Guinea present in 25 30' cells Forest type: wet and moist evergreen forest, semi-deciduous forest, secondary forest

Habitat

Species occurrence increases strongly with rainfall higher than 1500 mm/yr (Chi2 test) to reach an optimum around 2500 mm/yr (logistic regression analysis). It is found in mature forest or old secondary forests. Sometimes found close to water

(e.g. rivers, waterfalls, and even swamps). Often on sandy soils (herbarium).

Regeneration

The heavy seeds are not easily transported by animals. Therefore, regeneration occurs mainly below the parent tree. In Banco forest the species can form clumps (De Koning 1983). It regenerates in the shade (Hall & Swaine 1981). Germination occurs after 2-3 months. It has a cryptocotylar hypogeal reserve seedling type (cf. De Koning 1983).

Phenology

Deciduousness: evergreen Dispersal: barochore

Timing: flowering period from August to February; fruiting period from October to March

Data sources

FWTA, Voorhoeve (1965), Hall & Swaine (1981), De Koning (1983), Vivien & Faure (1985), Tailfer (1989), Jongkind (1995)

Altitude

River

Coast

Mean Annual Rainfall

Soil CMK

Soil WHC

>500m

>500m

<2km

<5km

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