Guild: pi

Life form: large tree Max. height: 45 m (Voorhoeve 1965) Max. diameter: 150 cm (Voorhoeve 1965) Leaf: alternate, simple, elliptic, notophyll (2.5-5 x 6-13 cm), entire, glabrous and glossy green above, brownish or greyish felty below; leaflets of flowering twigs often narrowly elliptic, microphyll (1-4 x 4-10 cm); leaves of saplings and water shoots oblong (up to 7 cm x 20 cm)

Inflorescence: axillary, branched (up to 20 cm long), slender twigs with slightly modified leaves Flower: small; corolla white Fruit: fleshy, ovoid (2.8 x 4.3 cm), coriaceous, rough, covered with numerous small lenticels, orange-brown or grey when ripe; 1 seed Seed: data unavailable

Other: the foliage often has a reddish or brownish glow when seen from below. Older trees have thick and narrow buttresses. The bark is densely covered with warty lenticels. Wood density is 0.81 g/cm3.


Continent: Senegal to Kenya (Voorhoeve 1965)

Upper Guinea: Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana (herbarium)

Forest type: wet evergreen forest, moist evergreen forest, moist semi-deciduous forest, secondary forest


The abundance of Parinari spp. as a group increases with rainfall, to reach an optimum around 2400 mm/yr. Their abundance decreases strongly with soil fertility (regression analysis). P. excelsa prefers moist alluvial soils (Taylor 1960).

It has a cryptocotylar epigeal reserve seedling type (cf. Voorhoeve 1965). Regeneration in high forest is scarce, but common in broken up forest, logging roads and young secondary forest (Voorhoeve 1965)


Deciduousness: evergreen Dispersal: by birds and mammals (Voorhoeve 1965), among others elephants (Hawthorne & Parren 2000)

Timing: flowering period from January to June; fruiting period from October to January


A timber species. The fruits are edible and highly esteemed.

Data sources

Taylor (1960), Voorhoeve (1965), Hawthorne & Parren (2000)


Mean Annual Rainfall

Soil CMK

Soil WHC


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