Evergreen Forest

Sherbournia Calycina

Life form large woody climber, climbing with Leaf opposite, simple, elliptic, notophyll (3-6 x 6-11 cm), entire, herbaceous, slightly hairy on the Flower small 8-merous pedicel pubescent Fruit fleshy (drupe), globose (2.5 cm in diameter), hard woody pericarp, rough, orange to red, covered with distinct muricate ridges and persistent calyx Seed large (approx. 1.2 cm in diameter) Continent Upper Guinea endemic Upper Guinea Liberia Distribution type continuous, very local, present in 2 30' cells,...

Hotspots of plant diversity in Upper Guinean forests

Upper Guinean Forests

Plant diversity hotspots are based on the distribution of a selection of rare and endemic plant species in Upper Guinean forests. The selection and the methods are treated extensively in chapter 6 (Wieringa & Poorter). The three maps here are the full colour versions of Figure 6.7. Dots are the middle of half-degree cells. For cells that partly cover the sea, the midpoint is positioned on the land surface. The sizes of the symbols are scaled to its biodiversity value. Cells with open symbols...

Map Symbol For Evergreen Forest

Deciduous Forest Map Symbol

Ds ms me we1 we2 we 3 hw forest type Figure 4.6 Comparison of forest types with respect to (A) rainfall, (B) water holding capacity and (C) cation availability. Comparison with existing national and local vegetation maps We compared our forest types with other ones that were made for the separate countries Ghana, C te d'Ivoire, Liberia and Sierra Leone (Table 4.5). Our vegetation map is comparable to the map for Ghana (Hall & Swaine 1981). Their gradient from wet evergreen via moist...

Zanthoxylum gilletii

Zanthoxylum Gilletii

Leaf alternate, imparipinnately compound, approx. 13 opposite or sub-opposite leaflets, oblong to Fruit capsule, globose (0.5 cm in diameter), dark brown 1 seed Seed small, black Other a tree with large, compound leaves clustered at the end of stout twigs with many pyramidal prickles over the unbuttressed bole. Upper Guinea Sierra Leone, Liberia, C te d'Ivoire, Forest type evergreen forest, secondary forest (Taylor 1960) It is a strong light demander (Taylor 1960). Germination is rapid, and...

Oncoba brevipes stapf

Mean Annual Precititation

Max. height 35 m (Hawthorne & Jongkind 2004) Leaf alternate, simple, obovate, mesophyll (7-10 x 15-22 cm), entire, clustered at terminal axis, coriaceous, dark green above and paler beneath Flower bisexual and male flowers corolla white, conspicuously large (petals 3 x 6 cm) sweet Fruit ellipsoid (4 x 7 cm), yellow 1 seed Seed medium-sized (0.7 x 0.5 cm), with aril Upper Guinea Guinea (FWTA), Sierra Leone, Distribution type continuous, widespread, present in 26 30' cells, distribution range is...

Forest cover changes in Cte dIvoire and Upper Guinea

Claissified Forest Cote Ivoire

Of the forest that covered West Africa at the beginning of the 20th century, the large majority has disappeared and the Ta National Park forest in C te d'Ivoire is now the last important one. Notwithstanding this rampant deforestation, it is necessary to remember that the forest was not always present throughout the centuries forests took over savanna zones, and vice versa (Guillaumet & Adjanohoun 1971, Maley 1996, van Rompaey 1993). More recently, extensive savanna zones got forested during...

Moraceae Wet Climates

Evergreen Forest Annual Temperature

Life form small to medium-sized tree Max. height 15 m (herbarium) Max. diameter 25 cm (herbarium) Leaf alternate, simple, elliptic-lanceolate to oblong-obovate, or 3-5 palmately lobed with a distinctly longer middle lobe, macrophyll (8-33 x 17-41 cm), serrate to dentate, coriaceous, sparse hairs above and below, white pubescent petioles varying in length (up to 24 cm long) Inflorescence dioecious, axillary, branched male inflorescence (3 x 11 cm), with flowers in globose groups female...

Lecythidaceae

Canada Yellowknife Temprature Cycle

Max. diameter 180 cm (Voorhoeve 1965) Leaf alternate, in terminal tufts, simple, elliptic to ovate, mesophyll (4-7 x 6-16 cm), entire or slightly undulate, herbaceous, scattered hairs on the blade Inflorescence terminal, not branched (up to 10 Flower medium-sized corolla white to pale green Fruit dry indehiscent, winged, spindle-shaped (4 cm long, wings up to 3.5 x 7 cm) 1 seed Seed very large Other often seen with many red leaves about to fall from the crown. It has small or no buttresses....

Rinorea aylmeri Chipp

Canada Yellowknife Temprature Cycle

Life form shrub or small tree Max. height 5 m Max. diameter data unavailable Leaf alternate, simple, elliptic, mesophyll (4-7 x 1220 cm), serrate, coriaceous, glabrous petiole up to 5 cm long Inflorescence terminal or axillary unbranched (3-6 cm long) Fruit dry dehiscent, triangular to globose (2 cm in diameter), dark brown, sparsely puberulous to Other the young stems are very dark brown. When slightly older (i.e. in the region where mature leaves are borne) the dark coloured epidermis...

Leguminosae Caes

Life form small tree Max. height 10 m (herbarium) Max. diameter data unavailable Leaf alternate, paripinnately compound, 10-16 leaflets, ovate to asymmetric, nanophyll (0.9-1.2 x 2-3 cm), entire, coriaceous, rachis with small scalelike glands close to and above leaflets, and with hairs red brown and curly Inflorescence axillary, unbranched (raceme), densely pubescent, branching racemes from the axils of very young and small leaves Flower small corolla dark-red fragrant Fruit dry dehiscent...

Tarenna vignei

River Tarenna Images

Max. height 7 m (Hawthorne & Jongklnd 2004) Leaf opposite, simple, rectangular to elliptic, notophyll (1.5-7 x 5.5-20 cm), entire, herbaceous, glabrous lower surface of petiole has a channel Inflorescence terminal, laxly branched cyme Flower small (corolla tube 1 cm long, lobes 0.7 Fruit fleshy (drupe), globose (1.1 cm in diameter), orange glossy with orange pulp, glabrous many Seed angular, medium-sized (0.5 x 0.3 x 0.3 cm), brown Other a slender tree with rather open crown and horizontal...

Combretaceae

Does Snow Australia

Life form small to medium-sized tree Max. height 15 m (herbarium) Max. diameter 40 cm (herbarium) Leaf alternate, simple, ovate with a blunt apex, microphyll (1-2 x 1.5-5 cm), entire, herbaceous, hairy midrib Inflorescence terminal, not branched Fruit dry indehiscent, pendulous (0.7 x 1 cm), Other a twisted tree with flaking bark. Continent Mali, Nigeria Upper Guinea Ghana Distribution type continuous, widespread, in Upper Guinea present in 2 30' cells. This species is known only from four...

Leguminosae Mim

California Mixed Evergreen Forest

Max. diameter 120 cm (Voorhoeve 1965) Leaf alternate, bipinnately compound, 32-40 opposite pinnae, each with 56-100 opposite leaflets, narrowly oblong, leptophyll (0.1-0.2 x 0.5-1 cm), entire, glabrescent, leaves of saplings as a rule with less pinnae and less leaflets, but leaflets Fruit dry indehiscent, strap-shaped (1.8 x 30 cm), first orange to yellow, purplish black when ripe up Seed flat, imbedded in a yellowish, mealy pulp Other a buttressed tree with a large, spreading crown. The new...

Study sites and methods

The study sites comprise thirteen forests in the centreeast, the southeast, the southern coast, the centre-west, and the southwest of C te d'Ivoire. The choice of these different forests was based on the intactness of the forest cover and the availability of species lists. The forests vary from semi-deciduous to evergreen (Figure 5.2), they are of various sizes (2590 to 300,000 ha), and have different soil and climatic conditions (Table 5.1). Three soil types can be distinguished tertiary...

Scytopetalaceae

Sample Images Typhoon Circulation

Life form large tree Max. height 40 m (Letouzey 1961) Max. diameter 100 cm (Letouzey 1961) Leaf alternate, simple, elliptic to oblong, microphyll (2-4 x 5-12 cm), entire, coriaceous, glabrous, with about 5 pairs of lateral nerves Inflorescence axillary, not branched (short racemes) Flower small ( 0.5 cm long) perianth white with corolla tube reddish at the base 12-16 tepals fragrant Fruit fleshy inside, endocarp dehiscent (drupe), ovoid (2 cm long), woody and ribbed outside, red Seed large (1.2...

What explains the distribution of rare and endemic West African plants

African Understory Plants

Understanding species distribution patterns is a crucial step for the conservation and management of plant communities and ecosystems. This is particularly true for species with small distribution ranges that grow and reproduce under a very particular set of environmental conditions. West African forests, although less species rich than some other tropical forests, seem to be relatively rich in endemic species (e.g. Myers et al. 2000, White 2001). About 22 of the forest species in Upper Guinea...

Project On Drynaria Laurentii

This list contains all names of all the vascular plant species from the forests of Upper Guinea. In total c. 2800 names of different species are included, some with subspecies and varieties. For each of the species a taxonomic publication is given, mostly recent publications with detailed information about the species distribution and ecology. In the case that a species is not cited for Upper Guinea in the literature, a herbarium specimen is cited instead. In the list the herbarium citations...

Introduction

The forest belt in Upper Guinea stretches over 2000 km from Senegal in the west to Togo in the east. Variation in floristic composition of these forests is mostly gradual although most vegetation maps are based for practical reasons on vegetation types and focus on classes rather than gradients (e.g. Taylor 1960, Mooney 1959, Guillaumet 1967, Guillaumet & Adjanohoun 1971, White 1983). Generally the vegetation of the region has been described in terms of the most conspicuous (mostly in terms of...

Main determinants of forest and savanna distribution

Present distribution of forest and savanna can be interpreted by looking for parallels with environmental conditions at various spatial scales. Among them, climate and edaphic conditions determine water availability and are of paramount importance in the competition between the two vegetation types. The outcome of competition is modified by disturbances such as fire and shifting cultivation. In the following paragraphs we discuss these main environmental factors, and how they operate at...

And management

Roswell Crash Site Photographed 1947

Need for effective conservation and sustainable use Forests are important as a habitat for plants and animals, for their role in the maintenance of cycles of rainfall and biogeochemical substances like carbon and nitrogen, and as a source of all kinds of forest products (e.g. timber, fuelwood, bushmeat, medicines, lianas for construction) satisfying the needs of human beings. Forests are commonly used for recreation and religious ceremonies (e.g. sacred forests). In short, tropical forests are...

Simaroubaceae

Life form medium-sized tree Max. height 21 m (herbarium) Max. diameter 40 cm (herbarium) Leaf alternate, imparipinnately compound, 11-31 subopposite leaflets, oblong to elliptic, mesophyll (3-9 x 10-30 cm), entire, coriaceous, hairs on midrib Inflorescence several clustered spikes Flower small red Fruit oblong to ellipsoid (4.5 x 7 cm), woody, yellow Other it has a rough bark in square scales, with a strong almond scent. Continent Upper Guinea endemic Upper Guinea Sierra Leone, C te d'Ivoire,...

Leguminosae Pap

Life form medium-sized woody climber Max. height 8 m (herbarium) Max. diameter 4 cm (herbarium) Leaf imparipinnately compound, 7-9 opposite leaflets, obovate to oblong, notophyll (2-5 x 4-11 cm), herbaceous, brownish hairs on the midribs, soft, dense yellow-orange spreading hairs falling with age to leave short whitish hairs below the leaf Inflorescence terminal, branched (panicle, up to 35 cm long) Flower calyx brown, hairy corolla white with deep pink slashes Fruit dry dehiscent, flat (2.5 x...

Medusandraceae

Life form small to medium-sized tree Leaf alternate, simple, elongate to oblong, mesophyll (4-11 x 12-32 cm), entire, coriaceous, glabrous with paired stipules (approx. 0.2 x 1cm) Inflorescence axillary, unbranched (densely Flower small calyx green to brownish corolla Fruit dry dehiscent, subglobose (2.3 x 2.8 cm), reddish 1 seed Seed large (up to 2 cm in diameter) Other the bark has many small lenticels. Continent Upper Guinea endemic Upper Guinea Liberia, C te d'Ivoire, Ghana Distribution...

Pleiocoryne fernandensis Hiern SRauschert

Life form large woody climber Max. height 15 m long (De Koning 1983) Max. diameter data unavailable Leaf opposite, simple, ovate, notophyll (3-6 x 5-10 cm), entire, coriaceous to fleshy, glabrous long petiole ( 2 cm) interpetiolar stipules Inflorescence terminal or axillary, unbranched (cyme, 5 cm in diameter) Flower medium-sized (corolla tube 2-3.5 cm long) corolla green and white, long tube-shaped with 5 Fruit fleshy, globose (4 x 5.5 cm), orange many Seed flat, medium-sized (approx. 1 cm...

Salacia howesii

Life form large irregularly winding woody climber Leaf opposite, simple, mesophyll (5 x 14 cm), entire, coriaceous, densely pubescent underneath Flower small (0.6 cm in diameter) yellowish dish- Fruit fleshy, globose (approx. 2.5 cm in diameter), orange Other the twigs are densely pubescent and not lenticellate. It has no exudate. The wood on cross-section is pale reddish with many darker dots. Continent Nigeria, Gabon Upper Guinea C te d'Ivoire, Ghana Distribution type continuous, widespread,...

Schumanniophyton problematicum

Life form small tree Max. height 12 m (FWTA) Max. diameter 5 cm (herbarium) Leaf opposite, simple, obovate, macrophyll (25-40 x 35-45 cm), dentate, herbaceous, in whorls of 3 at the extremity of branches, rather glabrous or with few hairs on midrib interpetiolar stipules Inflorescence axillary, flowers and fruits clustered on horizontal branches Flower large (corolla tube approx. 5 cm long) corolla tube cream-coloured, approx. 10 lobes, mottled brown Fruit fleshy, ellipsoid to ovoid (4 x 5.5...

Thomandersia anachoreta

Thomandersia

Leaf opposite, simple, lanceolate, notophyll (3-5 x Inflorescence axillary or terminal, not branched Flower yellowish green or bright brownish pink Fruit dry dehiscent (capsule), ellipsoid (1.6 x 0.9 cm) Continent Upper Guinea endemic Heine (1966) Upper Guinea Liberia, C te d'Ivoire (Heine 1966, Distribution type continuous, regional, present in 4 30' cells, distribution range is 390 km Forest type swamp forest, secondary forest In disturbed forest, along forest edges or roads. Sometimes near...

Data sources

Pieters (1958), Sawyerr (1960), Taylor (1960), Keay (1961), Voorhoeve (1965), De la Mensbruge (1966), Detienne & Mariaux (1977), Hall & Swaine (1981), De Klerk (1991), Hawthorne (1995a), IUCN Red List (2000) Entandrophragma utile (Dawe & Sprague ) Sprague Max. diameter 250 cm (Voorhoeve 1965) Leaf plnnately compound, 16-26 opposite or alternate leaflets, ovate to oblong, notophyll (2-5.5 x 5-12 cm), entire, thinly coriaceous, glossy, medium Inflorescence a long and slender panicle...

Chrysobalanaceae

Life form large tree Max. height 45 m (Voorhoeve 1965) Max. diameter 150 cm (Voorhoeve 1965) Leaf alternate, simple, elliptic, notophyll (2.5-5 x 6-13 cm), entire, glabrous and glossy green above, brownish or greyish felty below leaflets of flowering twigs often narrowly elliptic, microphyll (1-4 x 4-10 cm) leaves of saplings and water shoots oblong (up to 7 cm x 20 cm) Inflorescence axillary, branched (up to 20 cm long), slender twigs with slightly modified leaves Flower small corolla white...

Introduction Of Evergreen Forests

South Africa World War

Forest-savanna transitions occur in a variety of localities around the tropical world. Furley et al. (1992) provide an extensive review of the processes at the forest-savanna boundary, its dynamics, the role of physical factors, environmental change and vegetation history. However, apart from Nigeria, regional accounts concerned mainly Eastern and Southern Africa, Australia, and the Neotropics. We present here a review on the topic for West Africa. Distribution of vegetation types in West...

Euphorbiaceae

Euphorbiaceae Drupe

Life form medium-sized tree Max. height 30 m (Taylor 1960) Max. diameter 112 cm (inventory data Ghana) Leaf alternate, palmately compound (5 leaflets), obovate, mesophyll (2.5-12 x 6-20 cm), entire stipules large, herbaceous and persistent Inflorescence branched (panicle) Flower unisexual corolla white Fruit fleshy (drupe) (3 x 4.5 cm), yellow 3 seeds Seed very large (1.9 x 2.3 cm) Other a tree with weak-wooded branches and a dense crown, sometimes with buttresses. It is self-pruning. Wood...

Moraceae

Life form large, emergent tree Max. height > 50 m (Taylor 1960) Max. diameter > 150 cm (Taylor 1960) Leaf alternate, simple, elliptic, mesophyll (9 x 12 cm), entire to slightly undulate, coriaceous, slightly pubescent underneath, juvenile leaf very different, oblong to lanceolate (7 x 25 cm), serrate, herbaceous, pilose Inflorescence axillary, peduncle (male inflorescence up to 22 cm long, female inflorescence 1 x 4 cm) Flower dioecious small Fruit infructescence composed of small achenes...

Sterculiaceae

Kasztanowiec Kolorowanka

Max. diameter 136 cm (inventory data Ghana) Leaf alternate, palmately compound, 5-7 leaflets, lobed for 1 3 of the length, lobes broadly ovate to Inflorescence axillary or terminal, branched (panicle, up to 10 cm long) Flower medium-sized pinkish white, purple at base Fruit dry indehiscent, 1-5 free, winged mericarps, 1 seed per mericarp Seed large (1 x 2 cm), with 4 cm wings Other buttressing is most common on the tension side of leaning trees, soils under large-buttressed trees were shallower...

Dichapetalaceae

Life form medium-sized tree or shrub Leaf alternate, simple, elliptic, mesophyll (3-8 x 7-17 cm), entire, coriaceous, with 2 large glands at Inflorescence axillary, bowl-shaped, branched Flower small corolla white to creamy or light yellow, 5-merous, petals retuse to bilobed Fruit fleshy, subglobose (2.5 cm in diameter), strongly tuberculate, yellow 1 seed Seed ellipsoid, large (1.5 x 1 cm), brown Other a hardwood species with a dense bushy crown. The branchlets are hairy when young, later on...

Dichapetalum albidum AChev ex Pellegr Dichapetalaceae

Dichapetalaceae

Life form large winding woody climber Max. height 20 m long (herbarium) Max. diameter 5 cm (Breteler 1973) Leaf alternate, simple, elliptic to obovate, notophyll (2-6 x 5-16 cm), entire, herbaceous, dark green above, whitish beneath with stipules Inflorescence axillary, branched, small Flower small creamy calyx hairy, the sepals are outside somewhat purplish 5 petals, bilobed Fruit fleshy, globose (1.5 cm in diameter), with mealy mesocarp, yellow to orange up to 3 seeds Seed obovoid,...

Tapinanthus belvisii DC Danser

Leaf opposite, simple, ovate, notophyll (2-8 x 4-11 cm), entire, coriaceous, glabrous, the lower 2-3 pairs of lateral nerves stronger and more ascending, dull green, reddish when flushed Inflorescence axillary, umbel (sometimes several around old nodes, with 8-16 flowers in a ring) Flower medium-sized (corolla tube 2.7 cm long) corolla tube mostly red, lobes green, turning violet- Fruit fleshy (berry), subglobose (0.7 cm in Other the branchlets are velutinous. Timing flowering period mostly...

Loganiaceae

It regenerates in primary forest (De Rouw 1991) Dispersal by animals (monkeys, elephants) Leaf opposite, simple, elliptic, notophyll (2-7 x 3-13 cm), revolute, coriaceous, glabrous on both Inflorescence terminal or axillary, branched (panicle, up to 10 cm long, many flowered) Flower small (corolla 0.3 cm long) calyx greenish white corolla greenish white, 5-merous Fruit fleshy, disk-shaped (2 x 1.5 cm), orange, slimy pulp 1 seed Seed elliptic, large (1.7 x 1.1 x 0.5 cm), white with thick very...