Observation and measurements

Glacier observation and measurements for scientific purposes began in the European Alps. In 1842 a map of the Unteraar glacier was constructed (scale 1:10,000) by M.J. Wild (Zumbiihl et al., 1981). Another and cheaper approach to mapping glacier snouts is to measure the distance from one or more fixed marks in front of the glacier. In Switzerland, between 50 and 100 glaciers have been measured since the year 1890. These frontal measurements are supplemented by terrestrial and air photographs, and most recently by satellite imagery. In Norway, glacier-front positions have been measured systematically from about ad 1900.

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