Chapter 5 summarizes the evidence of pre-Quaternary glaciations and the glacial/ interglacial cycles during the Quaternary, from both terrestrial and marine records. In addition, evidence of late Cenozoic glacier and climate variations is presented from the Arctic, Eurasia, Northern Europe, the Alps, North and South America, New Zealand and Antarctica. A section is devoted to Late Glacial glacier and climate variations in NW Europe. Records of Holocene glacier and climate variations are presented from Canada, the USA, the Arctic, Greenland, Iceland, New Zealand, South America, Antarctica, Mount Kenya and other East African mountains, the Alps, China, Scandinavia, the Tatra Mountains and Jan Mayen. Neoglacial and Little Ice Age glacier variations are presented from Iceland, Scandinavia, France, the Alps, Eurasia, China, North and South America, Greenland, East Africa and the Pyrenees, with a synthesis, comparison and global summary of local glacier variations. One section deals with glaciers in relation to environmental change and the human race. Finally, models of Late Quaternary climate and ice-sheet evolution are presented.
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