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Passion Blog Pro Review

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Passion Blog Pro Review Summary

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4.6 stars out of 11 votes

Contents: Video Course
Author: Demetris Papadopoulos
Price: $47.00

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Life with Norm Entrepreneurs

In contrast to the dichotomous patterns exhibited when the system lacks norm entrepreneurs, their presence creates different patterns. First, norm entrepreneurs are able to influence which rule rises to dominant status when the noise precision levels would otherwise lead to stability around Population Predictions Low Noise, Entrepreneur Present the dominant rule. See Figure 4.4 for a demonstration of this effect. The simulation depicted in Figure 4.4 is similarly configured to the simulation run in Figure 4.2, except that a norm entrepreneur is now present. The impact of the norm entrepreneur was significant. The agents still crystallized around a single rule for the majority of the simulation, but instead of the dominant rule 4, the agents crystallized around rule 1 (which returns a prediction between 0 and 10) after the suggestion of the norm entrepreneur. The norm entrepreneur was able to alter the manner in which the agent population crystallized around a single rule a rule that...

Reach of the Entrepreneur

While the above results are valuable, they are just the beginning. Just how robust are the effects of norm entrepreneurs found in these initial analyses Under what conditions do norm entrepreneurs have which effects To begin to answer these questions, I undertook sensitivity analysis on the model in order to assess the importance of entrepreneur reach.441 investigated the impact of limited reach the effects if the norm entrepreneur could not influence the whole population, but rather just a portion of it. For this analysis I let the reach of the entrepreneur vary (30-40 percent of the population, 40-50 percent, 50-60 percent, 60-70 percent, 70-80 percent, 80-90 percent, 90-100 percent) in order to check whether these changes made a significant impact on the mean number of rounds where a norm was present. Table 4.1 presents the results of this analysis. What we see is that even norm entrepreneurs with a very limited reach (as low as 30 percent of the population of agents) are able to...

Life Without Norm Entrepreneurs

When norm entrepreneurs are absent from the system, two types of macro patterns emerge in the simulations. Depending upon the noise levels in the system, the simulation exhibits a strict dichotomy between stability and volatility in the system. Figures 4.2 and 4.3 are typical runs without norm entrepreneurs. As the noise in the system increases the simulation switches from stable to volatile. Each figure reports the average predictions (group outcome) made in each round by the agent population over one thousand rounds. Each of these simulations was run with ten agents and a precision level of 5 percent. The only variable altered from run to run was the level of noise added to the average prediction. In Figure 4.2, the predictions reach a stable level relatively quickly as the agents arrive at the same rule. As the noise increases in figure 4.3, however, the agents are unable to come to agreement and thus the average predictions fluctuate wildly. Without norm entrepreneurs the agents'...

Entrepreneurship

The verbal model hypothesizes that a norm entrepreneur suggested a change in appropriate understandings of participation requirements during the ozone depletion negotiations. A norm entrepreneur advocated for universal participation. Further, the verbal model claims that some states add this suggestion to their rule model they change their understanding of what a global response to ozone depletion requires. This adding may occur through varied processes persuasion, socialization, or coercion. In states, the adding is a domestic political process. The model also claims that such a change in the agents arises through adaptation. States that currently understand ozone depletion to require North-only participation negatively evaluate their internal rule models. Weakened rules are subject to change. As the agents change their internal models, they will change their behavior participating if they are not already participating (most of the South before 1987) or calling for universal...

The Northwest Passage

The first of three major expeditions that Franklin was to make there proved to be difficult, costly and nearly disastrous. He was financed by major entrepreneurs who were interested in exploiting the local fur trade, as well as accessing the passage. Franklin moored off the coast of Alaska, where he personally led an overland party of 20 men along the Coppermine River, which today stretches through Canada's Northwest Territories. This terrain would have been challenging even to the most experienced land explorer, which Franklin certainly was not, and within days the party faced starvation and had been reduced to eating old shoes and other scraps of leather. Eight of his men died in this expedition, and the others were lucky to escape with their lives.

Compatibility and Synergy

Moving from agents to structures, CAS provides a model of agent action. Internal rule models represent agents' subjective understandings of their context and they drive agent behavior. Emergence is the process through which agent actions and interactions combine to alter social structures. Universal participation emerged through a process of entrepreneurship and subsequent changes in states' internal rule models and behavior.

Programs and Policies

Scientists must work in partnership with farmers, industry and entrepreneurs to bring a new culture in agriculture. Transformation of the most marginalized farmers into agents of poverty alleviation, and environmental management through the blending of traditional and frontier technologies in socially equitable, economically viable and environmentally sustainable backgrounds and through production of more food from a diminishing resource base, with new agricultural technologies and management systems providing increased productivity per unit of land, water, energy, labor and investment, would be worth perusing. Part of this will involve focusing research on neglected crops such as minor millets, grain legumes and tubers, which can perform in times of environmental stress and in neglected areas such as arid and semi-arid coastal and mountain areas.

Food Access and Climate Change

Importantly, however, few households even in rural areas are fully dependent on agriculture. The inherent seasonality and year-to-year variability of agriculture encourages diversification of income sources, and in the dry season or in particularly bad years many rural households seek additional income in non-agricultural wage labor or self-employment. As Fig. 2.5 shows, these sources of income can be important, and introduce a second main aspect of climate change and food access, the nature of a household's exposure to food prices.

Sulfide Precipitation

As previously mentioned, sodium (or calcium) sulfide is cheap, readily available, quickacting, and very simple to use. Despite its safety hazards it is currently being used extensively as an instant curbside precipitant by sidewalk entrepreneurs in some Third World countries, such as China, who purchase used fixers for their silver content.

Modeling the Norm Life Cycle

Second, simulation analysis provides me with a social laboratory where I can experiment with the processes contained within the NLC. These experiments point to further insights that enhance the case studies of the ozone depletion and climate change negotiations and they facilitate outlining the boundary conditions of the verbal framework. When will a norm entrepreneur be able to catalyze the emergence of norms Under what conditions will norms emerge Modeling the norm life cycle is a rigorous way to find answers to these questions. While the model developed below is abstract and not designed to simulate actual negotiations, it does test the verbal model in crucial ways. Most importantly it explores how norm entrepreneurs influence the connections between norms and actors. This chapter proceeds by first introducing the agent-based modeling (ABM) method. This is followed by a formal operationalization of the norm life cycle the Pick a Number model. I then present the results of the...

Implications For The Governance Of Ozone Depletion And Climate Change

However, even given its simplicity, it produces complex patterns and demonstrates that stylized norm entrepreneurs can play a role in forging intersubjective agreement and that they contribute to norm evolution as well as emergence. It shows in a general, formal way that norm entrepreneurs can alter the dynamics of a system of interacting agents sometimes catalyzing the emergence and evolution of norms. While not an empirical test of the NLC, the modeling exercises and results do confirm its plausibility, and entail important implications for theory building and empirical investigation. Effect of the Reach of the Norm Entrepreneur Effect of the Reach of the Norm Entrepreneur Entrepreneur and norm change when norm entrepreneurs provide the catalyzing influence that Finnemore and Sikkink envisioned. In that sense, the plausibility of the book's argument is established (this is akin to an existence proof in rational choice).46 However, what is interesting about...

Conclusiontheory Models And Empirics

In this second stage of assessing the norms-based approach to GG, I have formalized the norm life cycle and demonstrated how the logic inherent in that framework plays out focusing specifically on the role of norm entrepreneurs in catalyzing norm emergence and change. The modeling exercises accomplished two crucial goals. of norm emergence and evolution. Thus, the expectations derived from the framework are valid (i.e., a norm entrepreneur can catalyze intersubjective agreement). The norms-based argument is thus at the very least reasonable given the assumptions inherent within it. The logic that built the verbal framework entails norm emergence and evolution . . . under certain conditions. Second, the modeling exercises provide further insight on the dynamics of social norms important for structuring the empirical analysis of stage three. The model results describe the boundary conditions for norm emergence and evolution through entrepreneurship. Important factors in explaining the...

Preparing and Protecting American Families from the Onslaught of Catastrophe

ProtectingAmerica.org is committed to finding better ways to prepare for and protect American families from the devastation caused by natural catastrophes. I co-chair the organization with James Lee Witt, the former director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency, and our coalition members include the American Red Cross, other first responder groups, emergency management officials, insurers, municipalities, small businesses, Fortune 100 companies and private citizens. The membership is broad and diverse and includes members from virtually every state in the nation.

Public Involvement in RCRA

The regulated community that must understand and comply with RCRA and its regulations is a large, diverse group. It includes not only facilities typically thought of as hazardous waste generators, such as industrial manufacturers, but also government agencies and small businesses, such as a local dry cleaner generating small amounts of hazardous solvents, or a gas station with underground petroleum tanks.

The Rbrc Program Canada And The Us

One hurdle to be cleared in recycling significant numbers of used Ni-Cd batteries is to assure that the batteries are amassed in convenient locations for shipping to a reclamation facility. In every country studied, this collection objective has been the hardest to accomplish. Many other recyclables are collected for their value as commodities. These materials, whether old newspapers, scrap metals or lead acid batteries, have positive economic value and are sought out by entrepreneurs seeking profit. In contrast, spent Ni-Cd batteries are useful as a source of raw materials when processed, but the combined cost of collection, transportation and processing far exceeds their raw material value.

An evolutionary perspective Evidence and theory

Schumpeter explained these cycles of growth and technological revolutions in terms of the behaviour of entrepreneurs. Keynes accepted In these literatures the focus is not only on technologies or the behaviour of entrepreneurs, firms and industries, but also on the political economy and politics influencing the institutional context in which market actors operate and technologies are selected. Historians have persuasively argued the vital importance of considering these 'extra-market' efforts on the part of economic actors and policymakers (Rosenberg, 1976 Hughes, 1983). Sociologists have also enriched the picture, revealing how technology users have had an active role in shaping innovations such as the bicycle, and how technical change is 'socially constructed' in both a sociological and a material sense (Bijker et al., 1987 Bijker, 1997).

Sea Lanes and Strategy

The contrary, Broe's decision to invest in the place looked more like a stroke of supreme foresight and entrepreneurial brilliance. This was because, by late summer of 2007, sea ice in Hudson Bay had started to melt more quickly than ever before. Larger areas were navigable for longer summer periods and some experts even began to estimate that the port might eventually be open for 10 months every year instead of the usual 4-month period between July and November. Soon there was wild speculation that it could eventually become a vital part of a trans-Atlantic trade route for international shipping, linking Canada and the United States with Russia and drastically reducing the length of the existing journey. Because of its key coastal location, Churchill would become a commercial hub that lies along the way.

Barriers to Implementation

Often work actively to impede the introduction of new competing technologies. Frequently regulatory or similar barriers inhibit introduction. For example, in many countries electric utilities are granted exclusive service territories, making it illegal for a private entrepreneurial company to introduce microgrid systems built on small-scale combined heat and power distributed generation (which is more energy efficient than central station power). At the same time, traditional utility companies may see little or no incentive to invest in such technology.

Scientific networks and new political opportunities

In Antarctica, the International Geophysical Year in 1957 58 led to formalized international research cooperation in the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research under the auspices of ICSU. At that time, similar research cooperation in the Arctic was prevented by the Cold-War tensions that had shifted the International Geophysical Year research focus from the Arctic to Antarctica. However, the wish for pan-Arctic research cooperation remained alive within the polar research community and among non-governmental scientific networks.154 Therefore, scientists with an Arctic interest were quick at picking up signals from the new political developments in the Soviet Union in the mid-1980s -President Mikhail Gorbachov's mission towards glasnost and perestroika. For example, in connection with a meeting in 1986, there were informal talks about these new signals and according to one interviewee's account the participants agreed that it was time for the Arctic countries to start discussing...

Universal Waste Handlers

There are two types of handlers of universal waste. The first type of handler is a person who generates, or creates, universal waste. For example, this may include a person who uses batteries, pesticides, thermostats, or lamps and who eventually decides that they are no longer usable. The second type of handler is a person who receives universal waste from other handlers, accumulates the waste, and then sends it on to other handlers, recyclers, or treatment or disposal facilities without performing the actual treatment, recycling, or disposal. This may include a person who collects batteries, pesticides, or thermostats from small businesses and sends the wastes to a recycling facility. The universal waste handler requirements depend on how much universal waste a handler accumulates at any one time.

Alternatives To Democracy Downsize Design And Markets Again

A third, and related, possibility is to make capitalism an environmentally constructive, not destructive, force.5 An ecologically enlightened capitalism would place value on natural capital such as soils, waters, forests, biological diversity, and climate stability while retaining the dynamism and creativity of markets and entre-preneurship. It would, in other words, internalize costs that were formerly off-loaded onto society and future generations, thereby eliminating pollution and waste. If this is successful, the driving forces of capitalism, such as innovation, entrepreneurship, constant change, economic growth, and even those less likeable features of greed and miserliness, will be fine as long as prices include the true costs of using natural capital. It is said that firms operating by the rules of natural capitalism inevitably will be more profitable than those that do not. Perhaps with better design, improved technology, and ecologically smarter business we don't need much...

Box 71 Criteria for good deliberation

(vii) Inclusion Certain groups may have little or no voice, even in a well organised consultation of the kind outlined above. These include future generations, marginalised and minority groups, diffuse groups of actors such as small businesses, and ultimately, the natural world generally. The role of the expert should be to facilitate genuine deliberation by striving to minimise the influence of asymmetries of power, especially by 'empowering' the weaker, less organised or less articulate groups or individuals. The more established parties (e.g. industry associations, large NGOs) usually are able to make their voice heard through traditional channels of representation. Asymmetries of power between participants are a major challenge to any appraisal process, but the transparency of deliberative processes makes abuse of power more difficult.

Regional Status and Potential of Renewables to Address Climate Change

A lack of entrepreneurial skills, experience and spirit. Government-owned utilities and energy enterprises, which dominated the energy sector of many developing countries until recently, discouraged the development of small business. Decades of centrally planned economies did not nurture an entrepreneurial spirit or help develop the skills and experience for business.

The Evolution of the Normative Context The Breakdown of North Only Participation on the Road to Montreal

The NLC CAS framework, as well as the Pick a Number Model, explains this transition in a very straightforward manner. The norm entrepreneur makes a suggestion. Agents accept it and add it to their rule models. The agents begin to exhibit new behavior (assuming that their current rule has recently performed poorly). If enough agents change their behavior a new norm emerges, altering the normative context. In the actual ozone depletion negotiations, the identity of the norm entrepreneur (Tolba UNEP) and the suggestion (universal participation) are both clear. However, moving from the suggestion to acceptance to new behavior is less straightforward in the empirical case.110 For the analysis of the emergence of universal participation, why the Southern states changed their behavior in some ways matters less than the fact of their changed behavior. However, for the NLC and its focus on an entrepreneur, it is crucial to observe how Tolba facilitated and catalyzed the change of behavior....

Global Climate Coalition GCC http wwwglobalclimateorgindexhtm

GCC is an organization of trade associations established in 1989 to coordinate business participation in the international policy debate on the issue of global climate change. Currently, GCC members collectively represent more than six million businesses, companies, and corporations in almost every sector of US business, including agriculture, forestry, electric utilities, railroads, transportation, manufacturing, small businesses, mining, oil, and coal.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

William Barton Rogers founded MIT in 1861, in response to the increasing industrialization of the United States. Although based upon German and French polytechnic models of an institute of technology, MIT's founding philosophy of learning by doing made it an early pioneer in the use of laboratory instruction, undergraduate research, and progressive architectural styles. As a federally-funded research and development center during World War II, MIT scientists developed defense-related technologies that would later become integral to computers, radar, and inertial guidance. After the war, MIT's reputation expanded beyond its core competencies in science and engineering into the social sciences, including economics, linguistics, political science, and management. MIT's endowment and annual research expenditures are among the largest of any American university. MIT graduates and faculty are noted for their technical acumen (63 Nobel Laureates, 47 National Medal of Science recipients, and...

Energy markets are not free

Utility regulatory commissions also effectively guarantee the financial return of centralized generation and its associated wires by including these investments in the 'rate base', on which utilities are guaranteed a profit. If sales of power do not materialize in amounts sufficient to provide the assured rate of return, commissioners simply raise rates in order to meet the targeted levels. Local generators, in contrast, enjoy no public guarantees, even though their dispersed plants can recycle the normally wasted heat, increase efficiency, cut pollutants and provide other public benefits. Power recycling entrepreneurs also face the risk that their manufacturer partner will cease or change operations and stop purchasing as much thermal energy, or will stop producing the expected amount of waste energy. In either case, the entrepreneur suffers reduced revenues and might not be able to pay back its investors and lenders. Environmental regulations, moreover, tilt the playing field...

Attractiveness to People and Its Consequences

Due to their seasonality, gentle topographic relief, relatively rich soils, and proximity to tropical coasts where abundant food and water sources were available, TDFs attracted human settlers and hunters from very early times. Their rich and varied mineral deposits drew entrepreneurs and industrialists as well. As a result, the transformation and degradation of these forests often has gone on for long periods of time.

Existing Smoke Management Situation In The

Predicting smoke behaviour from wildland fires is a difficult task. To be more tractable, the problem has been divided into discreet elements such as gas and particle chemistry, transport and dispersion, and emissions and heat production. A number of entrepreneurial contributions by various US research and operations groups have provided solutions to many of these elements (NWCG, 1985 Fox et al., 1986 Riebau et al., 1988 Southern

RANET Information in Action

The RANET system in Uganda, for example, depends primarily on digital multimedia transmissions of drought monitoring and prediction products, without the advantage of a community radio component. Encouraged by the first season of largely accurate forecasts delivered over the multimedia system, farmers in two of three Ugandan field sites visited by a USAID assessment team in February of 2002 expect to reduce seed losses through timely planting and to improve production and food security through use of optimal crops and crop varieties. In seasons when insufficient rainfall is forecast, they expect to conserve seeds and fertilizer. The positive reception of climate and weather information disseminated over the multimedia system in Uganda is part of a wider orientation away from the riskier traditional forecasting methods of rainmakers, towards a more scientific approach to agricultural production, especially among model entrepreneurial smallholders. The availability of both traditional...

Risk and Risk Management in Agriculture

To set the stage for the discussion on how to deal with risk in agriculture, we classify the different sources of risk. Agriculture is often characterized by high variability of production outcomes, that is, by production risk. Unlike most other entrepreneurs, agricultural producers cannot predict with certainty the amount of output their production process will yield, due to external factors such as weather, pests, and diseases. Agricultural producers can also be hindered by adverse events during harvesting or collecting that may result in production losses. In discussing how to design appropriate risk management policies, it is useful to understand strategies and mechanisms employed by producers to deal with risk, including the distinction between informal and formal risk management mechanisms and between ex-ante and ex-post strategies.

Implications for environmental quality

Promoting environmental quality is about more than encouraging sustainable development or adaptive capacity. It is also about transforming use practices for environmental resources into sustainable management practices. In many countries and sectors, stakeholders who manage natural resources (such as individual farmers, small businesses or major international corporations) are susceptible, over time, to variations in resource availability and hazards they are currently seeking to revise management practices to make their actions more sustainable. Hilson (2001), for example, describes efforts in the mineral extraction industry where the relevant players include public agencies operating at many scales (from local to national to international). Definitions of sustainability vary across sectors, but their common theme is to change the way resources are exploited or hazards are managed so that adverse impacts downstream or for subsequent generations are reduced. Climate change is,...

Social effects of climate change Livelihood contraction and job loss

Poverty is at the root of this insecurity, of course but in some countries and industries, it is actively fostered by economic and social policies of the government and the inattention of governmental regulatory agencies (Warshaw, 2007). The International Metalworkers Federation (IMF) is one of a several trade union federations to note an increase in the number and types of precarious employment situations - specifically, direct hire of temporary labour contracts, hiring by employment agencies or brokers, contracting out, personal labour contracts as bogus 'self-employed' workers, disguised employment training contracts, and home working (IMF, 2007).

Prioritizing Waste Streams andor Operations to Assess

Small businesses with only a few waste-generating operations should assess their entire facility. It is also beneficial to look at an entire facility when there are a large number of similar operations. The implementation of good operating measures such as soliciting employee suggestions, awareness-building programs, better inventory and maintenance procedures, and internal cost accounting changes can be implemented on a facility-wide basis. Many of these options do not require large capital expenditures and can be put into operation in a relatively short time.

Screening and Selecting Options for Further Study

Screening procedures can range from a simple vote by team members to sophisticated quantitative decision-making formulas. Generally, an informal evaluation utilizes an unstructured conference setting by which an assessment team or program task force selects options that appear to be feasible. This method is used most often by small businesses or in situations where only a few options are practical.

Energy or Fuel Generation from Wastewaters

Biogas from anaerobic processes such as anaerobic sludge digesters or anaerobic reactors for reducing high-strength wastewaters has been well known and utilized to a certain degree on a small scale. But the enthusiasm for its energy generation capacity never lasts very long as people soon realize the costs associated with enriching methane gas from biogas, collection of this gas, and transportation of this gas in such small quantity. Landfills produce biogas naturally under anaerobic conditions and this gas had, for a long time, generated little interest until recently. The reasons for the attention to biogas from landfills have shared little common ground with one another. People concerned with global warming feel more depressed because methane, which is a worse greenhouse gas than CO2, and CO2, comprises the majority of biogas from landfill, whereas entrepreneurs see the same biogas as diamond in the rough, a part of new green revolution that will usher in a green economy.

University of st Gallen switzerland

Ent, the institute's primary research projects include culture and sustainability, management systems for corporate sustainability, sustainability marketing and sustainable consumption, life cycle assessment, environmental finance and entrepreneurship, and renewable energy technologies. In 1968, five students from the University of St. Gallen chose to make a difference by fostering dialogue between groups instead of joining the protests of many of their peers. They set up the International Students' Committee and formed a symposium designed to foster cross-generational dialogue in a neutral environment. Each year in May since 1970, the St. Gallen Symposium has been held at the university as a forum for international dialogue on the connections among business, politics, and society. Attendees include business professionals (corporate and entrepreneurial), policymakers, academic professionals, and students from the University of St. Gallen in Switzerland for integrative discussions on...

Adaptation to Reduce Indirect Losses

Finally, disasters can also be opportunities. For instance, when a factory has been destroyed, the reconstruction can be done using the most efficient new technology, therefore improving productivity. Examples of such improvement are (a) for households, the reconstruction of houses with better insulation technologies and better heating systems, allowing for energy conservation and savings (b) for companies, the replacement of old production technologies by new ones, like the replacement of paper-based management files by computer-based systems (c) for government and public agencies, the adaptation of public infrastructure to new needs, like the reconstruction of larger or smaller schools when demographic evolutions justify it. Capital losses could, therefore, be limited by a higher productivity of the economy in the event aftermath (see also Albala-Bertrand, 1993 Stewart and Fitzgerald, 2001 Okuyama, 2003 and Benson and Clay, 2004). Several factors, however, make it doubtful that this...

Counterfactual Principles

Let us try to apply this principle to the case of Max and Minnie. Consider a general rule against adultery, that is, against voluntary sex between a married person and someone other than his or her spouse, even if the spouse knows and consents. It might seem that Max and Minnie could not reasonably reject this rule as a public social rule, because they want to avoid problems for their own society. If so, Scanlon's principle leads to the same questionable results as the public permission principle. If Scanlon replies that Max and Minnie can reasonably reject the anti-adultery rule, then why The most plausible answer is that it is their own business how they have fun as long as they do not hurt anybody. But this answer is available also to people who drive gas-guzzlers just for fun. So this principle cannot explain why that act is morally wrong.

Biodiversity conservation in perspective

Pharmaceutical leads from certain tropical plants, the search and screening programmes have recently concentrated more attention on species with firmly established indigenous medical histories. Expeditionary forces sent to tropical regions to collect samples for screening engage, in nearly all cases, tribal members to harvest the medicinal plants. Tribal members usually have a vast knowledge of forest terrains. With a few dollars in their pockets, hired individuals bring back sackfuls of plant material. The impoverished communities are lured by the dollar to treat harvesting as an important source of income. This gives birth to a new breed of indigenous entrepreneurs inclined to employ local teams or gangs to harvest plants. Screening activities take years to generate tangible results and so overhar-vesting is bound to occur. The rates of harvesting accelerate as the yearning for bigger incomes by the local population increases. To a very considerable extent, the expeditionary forces...

Early Modern Fur Trade

As Native American societies prospered, they elaborated new cultural configurations that combined Native and European artifacts and patterns. Such expressions were made possible by the flow of new and valued European goods into a still self-regulating Native economy. As long as the Amerindians were able to direct most of the social labor available through kin-ordered relations to the task of guaranteeing their subsistence, the goods attained by part-time fur hunting supplemented rather than replaced their own means of production.50 But as European traders consolidated their economic and political position, the balanced relation between Native trappers and the Europeans gave way to imbalance. Amerindians themselves came to rely increasingly on the trading post not only for the tools of the fur trade but also for the means of their own subsistence. This growing dependence pressured the native fur hunters to commit even more labor to the fur trade in order to pay for the goods advanced...

Buying our way out of trouble

These markets are the result of entrepreneurial activity by environmental NGOs as well as private firms spotting opportunities for new market development. Many of these firms operate also in the carbon markets established by governments or under the Kyoto Protocol. But they have also been instrumental in establishing these private, or 'voluntary' carbon markets. Indeed, the two sorts of market are often connected, as projects that fail to qualify for registration with the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) may end up on the voluntary market that imposes less stringent criteria. What happens in the broader climate regime in terms of targets, approved methodologies and the like, sends strong market signals to actors involved in voluntary markets. For those involved in voluntary and compliance markets such as offset organisations like EcoSecurities, a workable national and international framework of regulation is hugely important.2 What started as a small sector led by a few entrepreneurs...

The evolutionary significance of mass extinctions

Van Valen has a specialist knowledge of fossil mammals. The high rate of diversification and evolutionary turnover in mammals, which makes them, like ammonites, valuable biostratigraphic indicators, is likely to be the result of a variety of factors, such as strong competitive interactions leading to specialization in feeding methods, limitations on food supply, high mobility and use of energy, interspecies aggression, and territoriality. Such factors will conspire to lower the 'resource threshold' that is needed to prevent extinction, as compared with other animals. Although the Red Queen model might well apply to mammals, there are doubts about its more general validity. Thus, in sharp contrast to mammals, the bivalves, that is, clams and oysters, are nearly all sea-bed suspension feeders which mind their own business, are characterized by weak interactions with other species, exhibit primitive inflexible behaviour, have an uncrowded, largely sedentary, mode of life, and have...

Homestead Agroforestry and Management A Key Employment Opportunity for the Women

Women, the vulnerable group of the society and half of the country's population, have a great opportunity for self-employment in the income-generation activities through the practice of vegetable and fruit production in the homestead. Homestead agrofor-estry activities are keeping busy the entire households particularly the women who have minimum opportunities to be involved with other than homestead activities and ensuring the economic security especially to the poorer. The possibility of gender equality for participating in home garden management and sharing of benefits is perhaps one of the major stimuli for continued household food security enjoyed by home gardeners (Kumar and Nair 2004). Homestead being the dwelling place, enables the women for efficient management of homestead activities. Use of family labor, especially women labor, in the production process not only satisfies a wide range of domestic needs more economically but also ensures lowering of production costs and...

The Development Of The Global Climate Change Regime

Despite these advances, whether improved scientific knowledge would have been enough to spur political action is doubtful, particularly given the scientific uncertainties about climate change that persist even now. Although the growth of scientific knowledge was significant in laying a foundation for the development of public and political interest, three additional factors acted as the direct catalysts for governmental action. First, a small group of environmentally-oriented Western scientists - including Bert Bolin of Sweden, who would later become the first Chair of the Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) - worked to promote the climate change issue on the international agenda. As major figures in the international science establishment, with close ties to the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and UNEP, these scientists acted as knowledge-brokers and entrepreneurs, helping to translate and publicize the emerging scientific knowledge about the greenhouse effect...

Nationalism in Greenland

Entrepreneurial spirit have in recent years also struck deals to exploit the newly located reserves of Congo and Zambia. If, on the other hand, the Chinese decide that later-stage assets offer more value, then they might put more emphasis on buying distressed companies in any of the Arctic countries, including Russia. In early 2009, for example, Chinese companies were using their considerable cash resources to purchase mining assets in Canada. 'The Chinese realize there are massive opportunities in the market', as one investor told a British newspaper.35

Example The Latin American and Caribbean Initiative for Sustainable Development

Beyond public management, this political platform recognizes the active participation of the entrepreneurial sector and civil society to promote actions that can generate sustainable productive activities and, at the same time, allow the conservation and sustainable use of environmental goods and services essential to life.

The Modern Assault On Nature The Making Of Ecocide

Yet both Marx and Weber associated capitalism with an outlook of a very specific kind the continual accumulation of wealth for its own sake, rather than for the material rewards that it can serve to bring. Said Weber Man is dominated by the making of money, by acquisition as the ultimate purpose of his life. Economic acquisition is no longer subordinated to man as the means for satisfaction of his material needs.8 Still, he emphasized the role of the Protestant ethic as containing the ethos and worldview of the newly emerging bourgeoisie.9 The entrepreneurs associated with the development of rational capitalism combine the impulse to accumulation with a positively frugal lifestyle. Weber finds the answer in the this-worldly asceticism of Puritanism, focusing on the concept of calling.10 The notion of the calling, according to Weber, did not exist either in antiquity or in the Middle Ages the Reformation introduced it. Ultimately, feudalism was toppled by the expansion of markets and...

Utilizing all the waste

Fish Ensiling

There are three main categories of co-products that utilize all, or almost all, seafood processing wastes. These are compost, meals, and hydrolysates or digests. These products are often produced by independent entrepreneurs, who have the time and interest to learn the technology and to develop markets that, for the most part, have nothing to do with seafood. We will define each technology, explain how to get started on a small scale, and discuss the pros and cons of each.

Solar Energy Industries Association SEIA

SEIA chapters have up-to-date information on retailers and distributors in their area and frequently host workshops and discussion groups. SEIA's mission is to reduce regulatory barriers to photovoltaic installations, increase photovoltaic markets across the nation through meaningful and appropriate incentive programs at the state and federal levels, guarantee continuing federal research into high standards of photovoltaic devices, and supporting technologies such as inverters and balance-of-system equipment. SEIA campaigns for legislation in favor of renewable energy and technologies that could provide emission-free energy sources. It also advocates for a reduction of CO2 emissions.

Love Canal Is Not For Honeymooners

Love Canal is not a place many people would choose to visit on a honeymoon. Love Canal was a quiet neighborhood in Niagara Falls, New York, that became infamous as one of the most horrific toxic waste dumps in the country. The history of Love Canal began in the 1890s, when entrepreneur William T. Love envisioned building a canal that would connect the two levels of the Niagara River, above and below the falls, for generating electricity and, eventually, as a shipping canal. He dug about a mile (1.6 km) of the canal, with a channel about 15 feet (5 m) wide and 10 feet (3 m) deep, before his scheme failed and the project was abandoned. Eventually his land was sold to the city of Niagara Falls, which used the undeveloped land as a landfill for chemical waste. The canal was thought to be appropriate for this use since the geology consisted of impermeable clay and the area was rural. The area was then acquired by Hooker Chemical, which continued its use as a toxic chemical landfill,...

Tata energy Research institute TERI

Efficiency, and response to climate change in Asia and the Pacific region. Although large-scale projects with international cooperation remain key to many of TERI's goals, TERI also promotes empowering disadvantaged populations and generating employment through small-scale entrepreneurial endeavors.

Mobilising the power of investors

Insurance companies are founded on the idea of risk management - calculating the probabilities of particular types of events, and working out means of spreading, hedging against, minimising or otherwise managing the dangers those events pose. They are perhaps predisposed to be conservative in their reactions to large-scale phenomena like climate change their first thought is to cover their backs. But others take the risk-management approach to climate change in a much more entrepreneurial direction. These entrepreneurial actors have developed a series of what are now called weather derivatives products. The classic example is that in many places companies like restaurants and bars can now buy financial products that pay out in the event of rain or snow on a Friday night. This is not an insurance product - they do not have to demonstrate that they lost money because of the rain. It simply pays out in the case of rain. Other examples include a contract where gas distribution companies...

Afterword Sustainable Energy The Challenge of Choice

This widely acknowledged general phenomenon is nowhere better documented or understood than in the energy sector. In fact, it was a forensic study of the emergence of centralised electricity supply itself (Hughes, 1983) that provided the classic case for explaining how successful technological systems can (indeed must) acquire their own 'momentum' - largely independent of wider social and political influences. Without an appreciation of these important ways in which the development of technological transitions are actively 'constructed', Thomas Edison would arguably never have built the electricity system as we recognise it today. Nor, for that matter, would any other contemporary aspiring entrepreneurial 'system builder', whether focused on carbon sequestration, nuclear power or clean energy services, be likely to enjoy much success.

Clean Coal and Nuclear Technologies

Because renewable technologies need further development, some experts argue that currently abundant fuel sources, such as coal and nuclear energy, may have to be relied on until better energy sources are available. The United States, for example, already uses coal to produce much of its electricity, and it has enough coal to last another 250 years. President Bush has proposed that more coal plants be built to reduce the country's reliance on foreign oil, but the problem is that coal is a fossil fuel that produces harmful emissions when burned. Entrepreneurs therefore are researching ways to produce a form of clean, emission-free coal. One of their ideas is coal gasification a way of chemically converting coal into a cleaner-burning natural gas by using steam and high pressure. Another idea currently being researched is carbon sequestration a method of capturing the carbon dioxide that is produced from burning the coal and burying it deep underground so that it does not escape into the...

Prescriptions and policy implications

From the information available it is difficult to assess the possibilities for income generation on the basis of collection of medicinal plants in rural areas. Instead, it is necessary to examine the experience of other products, the most applicable being other collected non-timber forest products (NTFPs). Falconer (1990) concludes that the markets for NTFPs are growing throughout West Africa, especially in urban and peri-urban areas. There is strong or growing demand for products such as bushmeat, palm oil, chewsticks, cola nuts and medicines, as well as manufactured goods such as furniture. In some regions the use of plant medicines is thought to be increasing because of the rising cost of Western drugs and the negative experience of disillusion with modern drugs and the modern health system. Previous sections have shown that Ghana's economic crisis and subsequent structural adjustment policies have resulted in modern medical treatment and facilities becoming less accessible to many...

Cleaner Production

National pollution control programs implemented by UNIDO aim to influence national policies on the reduction of industrial pollution in developing countries as well as to change the approach of individual entrepreneurs to this problem.14 National environmental policies for the reduction of industrial pollution consist of discharge standards and implementation schedules based on the pollution abatement potential of end-of-pipe technologies. They do not recognize the considerable potential of source reduction for meeting discharge standards and for minimizing the costs of installing and operating pollution abatement technologies. In turn, enterprises, particularly small and medium enterprises (SMEs), are not concerned about environmental matters (or even waste minimization), and when they are confronted with government regulations respond in one of two ways.15 Either they make no investment in end-of-pipe technology, claiming that it is impossible given their financial situation, or...

Acknowledgements

Parts of the argument developed further in this book appeared first in Constructing a Complex World The Frontiers of International Relations Theory and Foreign-Policy Making. Asian Journal of Political Science 11 (2) (December 2003) 37-57, and in Entrepreneurs and the Emergence and Evolution of Social Norms. in 3rd Workshop on Agent-Based Simulation, edited by Christoph Urban, Ghent, Belgium SCS-Europe. I would like to thank Marshall Cavendish International and SCS-Europe respectively for permission to include the material.

Primary Treatment

The march toward effective wastewater treatment began in the late 1800s, when municipalities began to build facilities for the purpose of physically separating out solids and floating debris from wastewater before releasing it to a waterbody (Rowland and Heid, 1976). In many cases, this construction was promoted by city officials and entrepreneurs, who were rapidly learning that unsightly urban debris and a delightful growing phenomenon, tourists with leisure dollars to spend, did not mix. By no coincidence, one of the first of these treatment facilities was constructed in 1886 next to New York's famous Coney Island beaches. Other cities with prominent waterfront areas followed suit, and by 1909 about 10 percent of the wastewater collected by municipal sewer systems underwent some form of physical separation process, now known as primary treatment (OTA, 1987).

A focus on regimes

Affect the interest of each state, such as new knowledge or domestic changes that affects the national interest.25 Another analogy used in this approach is the market, where regimes become a way to facilitate the making of specific agreements. Regimes are useful enough for coordinating decisions among actors, such that they are worth the extra transaction costs involved in creating a setting for joint decision making. Keohane emphasizes that there have to be political entrepreneurs who see a potential profit in organizing a collaboration in order to establish a regime.26

Capitalism

Trade over long distances to procure goods was the stimulation throughout history for such developments as overland caravans to the Middle East and Asia shipping routes from Asia to Europe and from the Americas to Europe and the colonization of Africa, Asia, and the Americas. Emphasis on production came with industrial advancement. Before that time, however, an important figure in the capitalist system began to emerge the entrepreneur, or risk taker. A key element in capitalism is the undertaking of activity in the expectation that it will yield gains in the future. Because the future is unknown, both the risk of loss and the possibility of gain exist. The assumption of risk involves the specialized role of the entrepreneur. The Renaissance and Reformation brought about social change, as people demanded a right to be involved in their government and to control their personal destinies. With this emerged contemporary forms of government, with judicial, legal, and organizational...

To Response

But if one premise for this book is that climate change entails an enormous transformation of how capitalism operates, then our other premise is that despite resistance, in fact an embryonic form of climate capitalism is already emerging. The chapters that follow elaborate how the ways that governments, corporations and non-governmental actors have responded to climate change are best understood as an effort to decarbonise the global economy. Of course this development is patchy - some governments are more active than others, some businesses much more entrepreneurial and far-sighted than others - but the foundations of such an economy are nevertheless in the process of being built. These foundations can be characterised as different types of carbon markets, which put a price on carbon, and thus create incentives to reduce emissions. At the end of the book, we draw out various possible scenarios for what sorts of climate capitalism we might end up having to live (or die) with. We...

Results

Multiple simulations of the model were run, altering key variables. I investigated the effects of including excluding the norm entrepreneur varying levels of noise on the outcome and varying the reach of the norm entrepreneur. The overarching exploration looked at the impact of a norm entrepreneur on the ability of the agents to reach intersubjective agreement, so all the simulation runs are split into runs with and without norm suggestions. In this section I report the results with minimal interpretation. The discussion section that follows discusses the theoretical and empirical significance in more detail.

Regulated Generators

Hazardous waste generators may include various types of facilities and businesses ranging from large manufacturing operations, universities, and hospitals to small businesses and laboratories. Because these different types of facilities generate different volumes of wastes resulting in varying degrees of environmental risk, RCRA regulates generators based on the amount of waste that they generate in a calendar month. As a result, there are three categories of hazardous waste generators 2,9

Israel

Israel has approved three new projects that reputedly could reduce CO2 emissions by as much as 150,000 metric tons per year. Israel's status as a developing nation and the Clean Development Mechanism allow the country to sell the reduction percentage to developed countries eager to meet their own targets. These projects could mean good news for Israel, the developed countries, and the entrepreneurs who developed the new technologies.

Planning a Strategy

Most small businesses do not realize how much waste they produce. Ask most managers if they use all of their raw material, or input, and they will probably say that they do. What they actually mean is that they process all of the raw material needed, not that they use the entire amount purchased. If they feel they are getting their money's worth, most managers will not give a second thought to what is lost or wasted. Small businesses may not have the capital to spend on expensive equipment or to change existing processes overnight, but they do possess a valuable resource in their employees. Creative ideas and active participation by all employees can translate into unexpected cost savings and profits for any entrepreneur. Acting on an employee's recommendation, General Dynamics was able to eliminate disposal costs of a caustic solution by finding a market for it. Borden Chemical greatly reduced effluent waste by encouraging good housekeeping techniques. In the area of waste reduction,...

Vermont

In 2006, Governor Jim Douglas announced a public-private partnership that will invest 20 million in energy efficiency. He also extended state energy efficiency programs. In addition to 8 million in weath-erization grants available to low-income Vermonters each year, Douglas' program also created private capital to provide 20 million no- or low-interest loans to assist homeowners and small businesses to make buildings more fuel efficient.

Works Cited

Entrepreneurs and the Emergence and Evolution of Social Norms. In 3rd Workshop on Agent-Based Simulation, edited by Christoph Urban, 32-37. Ghent, Belgium SCS-European Publishing House. Moravcsik, Andrew. 1999a. Supranational Entrepreneurs and International Cooperation. International Organization 53 (2) 267-306. Schneider, Mark, and Paul Teske. 1992. Toward a Theory of the Political Entrepreneur Evidence from Local Government. American Political Science Review 86 (3) 737-47.

Further reading

New York State Department of Environmental Conservation Pollution Prevention Unit (March 2001) 'Environmental self-assessment for the food processing industry'. sanders, g. b. and crosby, k. s. (October 2004), 'Waste legislation and its impact on the food industry'. In Total Food Proceedings, edited by K Waldron, C Faulds and A Smith. Norwich, UK Institute of Food Research, pp. 16-28. Science-Tech Entrepreneur (November 2003). 'Waste management in food processing industries'. Nov03 waste_management.htm. sherman, r. (1995), Reducing Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste for Community Solid Waste Managers. Morgantown, VA National Environmental Training Center for Small Communities, pp. 1-180. thankappan, s. (2005), 'From fridge mountains to food mountains Tackling the UK food waste problem'. Cardiff Centre for Ethics, Law and Society, Issue of the Month, June, pp. 1-15.

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