ro E



Figure 5.10 OECD renewable energy R&D expenditures (Source: Goldstein, 1999).

hydrogen production and infrastructure technologies, electric vehicles, superconductivity, storage, and hybrid configurations.

Fourth, policies to address local air pollution and other environmental considerations should be structured so as to provide as much incentive to renew-ables and energy efficiency as possible. For example, the US SO2 allowance system developed under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 has been a significant economic success in reducing sulfur emissions with minimal market disruption. However, to gain political acceptance, the distribution of allowances was structured so that existing polluters received the initial free allow-ances.8 Another alternative would have been to provide allowances annually to the electric sector based on the electricity produced, not the fuel input. In this way renewable electric technologies would also receive allowances for the electricity they produce. These could be sold by the renewable technologies to the fossil-powered generators. Thus, the renewables would receive the benefit of the allowances rather than the existing fossil-based polluters.

Fifth, identify opportunities to provide limited subsidies to renewables that will allow them to reach the next plateau in their development. Technologies close to market competitiveness are excellent candidates, especially if an increase in their production shows promise of industrial learning and cost reductions. As much as possible, these subsidy programs should be long-term with defined expiration conditions to provide as much certainty as possible to the investment community.

Sixth, establish programs to encourage voluntary purchases of renewable energy by government, the private sector, and by individuals. These "green power" programs have shown some promising results and appear to have great potential.

Seventh, encourage the transfer of technology to the developing world. Industrialized countries should increase efforts to build the markets for renewable energy in the developing world. Tied-aid programs, which encourage hardware sales but discourage competition, should be transformed into technology cooperation initiatives that build commercial markets and trigger private investment.

8 The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 did provide for a set-aside of 300 000 allowances for utilities that adopted renewable energy technologies. However, less than 15000 such allowances were claimed because:

1. They expired in 1990.

2. They could not be claimed by non-utility generators.

3. Only utilities adopting certain "integrated resource planning" procedures could claim them.

4. One allowance (one ton of SO2) was allowed for each 500 MWh of renewable electricity provided - one-sixth the amount of SO2 emitted from 500 MWh by those coal-fired generators controlled under the first phase of the SO2 allowance program.


Anderson, D. (1997). Renewable energy technology and policy for development. Socolow, R., ed., Annual Review of Energy and the Environment, 22. Palo Alto, CA: Annual Reviews, Inc.

Bijur, P. (June 1999). Energy Supply Technologies, Chapter 5 of Powerful Partnerships: The Federal Role in International Cooperation on Energy Innovation. Washington, DC: The President's Committee of Advisors on Science and Technology.

Cassedy, E. S. (2000). Prospects for Sustainable Energy. University Press, Cambridge, U.K.

Chan, S., Cheng, S., and Curtice, D. (October 1983). Methods for Wind Turbine Dynamic Analysis. EPRI El-3259, Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA.

www.eren.doe.gov/superconductivity/pdfs/potential_of_supercon.pdf, June.

Energetics. (September 1999). US Photovoltaics Industry, PV Technology Roadmap Workshop. Columbia, MD.

EPRI (Electric Power Research Institute). (January 1979). Requirements Assessment of Wind Power Plants in Electric Utility Systems. Volume 2, EPRI ER-978, Palo Alto, CA.

EPRI (Electric Power Research Institute and US DOE). (December 1997).

Technology Characterizations of Renewable Electric Technologies. EPRI TR-109496.

EIA (Energy Information Administration). (March 1997). Renewable Energy Annual, 1996. US Department of Energy, Washington, DC. National Energy Information Center.

EIA (Energy Information Administration). (1999a). International Energy Outlook 1999. US Department of Energy, Washington, DC. National Energy Information Center.

EIA (Energy Information Administration). (December 1999b). Annual Energy Outlook 2000. DOE/EIA- 0383(00).

EIA (Energy Information Administration). (June 2000). Web page: www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/ieo/index.html, June.

European Union (July 2000). Web page:

europa.eu.int/comm/eurostat/Public/datashop/print-catalogue/EN?catalogue = Eurostat&collection = 09-Database%20Information&product = SIRENE-EN

EWEA (European Wind Energy Association). (June 2000). Web page: www.ewea.org/y2k.htm.

Farhar, B. C. (July 1999). Willingness to Pay for Electricity from Renewable Resources: A Review of Utility Market Research. NREL/TP-550-26148, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO.

Gazo, F. (1997). Full steam ahead (a historical review of geothermal power development in the Philippines). Proceedings of Geothermal Resources Council, Vol. 21, September/October 1997. Republic of the Philippines: National Power Corporation.

Goldemberg, J. and Mielnik, O. (1998). Renewable energy and environmental concerns and actions in Latin America. Campbell-Howe, R., ed., Proceedings of the 1998 Annual Conference of the American Solar Energy Society, June 1998, Albuquerque, New Mexico. Boulder, CO: American Solar Energy Society.

Goldstein, L., Mortensen, J., and Trickett, D. (May 1999). Grid-Connected

Renewable-Electric Policies in the European Union. NREL/TP-620-26247, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO.

Greenwinds. (June 2000). Web site:


Grubb, J. J. (1987). The Integration and Analysis of Intermittent Source on Electricity Supply Systems. Ph.D. Thesis, King's College, University of Cambridge.

Herrera, J. E., Reddoch, T. W. et al. (October 1985). A Method for Determining How to Operate and Control Wind Turbine Arrays in Utility Systems. Draft Report. Solar Energy Research Institute, Golden, CO.

IEA (International Energy Agency). (1997). Key Issues in Developing Renewables. Paris, France: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.

IEA (International Energy Agency). (1998). World Energy Outlook. Paris, France: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.

IEA (International Energy Agency). (1999). World Energy Outlook: 1999 Insights. Paris, France: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.

IIASA (International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis). (1981). Energy in a Finite World, A Global System Analysis. Cambridge, MA.

IIASA/WEC, 1998, Global Energy Perspectives, edited by N. Nakicenovic, A. Grubler, and A. McDonald, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

INEEL (Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory). (2000). Web site: www.ineel.gov/national/hydropower/state/stateres.htm.

International Development and Energy Associates, Inc. (December 1992). Technical and Commercial Assessment of Amorphous Silicon and Energy Conversion Devices Including Photovoltaic Technology. Report No. 92-04 prepared for the Office of Energy and Infrastructure, US Agency for International Development.

IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). (1996). Climate Change 1995: Impacts, Adaptations and Mitigation of Climate Change: Scientific-Technical Analyses. Contribution of Working Group II to the Second Assessment Report, Cambridge University Press.

Jagadeesh, A. (March 2000). Wind energy development in Tamil Nadu and Andhra Prodesh, India: institutional dynamics and barriers. Energy Policy, 28, No. 3.

Johansson, T. B., Kelly, H., Reddy, A. K. N., and Williams, R. H. (1993). Renewable Energy, Sources for Fuels and Electricity, Island Press, Washington, D.C.

Kassler, P. (November 1994). Energy for Development. Shell Selected Paper, based on a presentation to the 11th Offshore Northern Seas Conference, Stavanger, August 1994.

Keegan, P., Price, B., Hazard, C., Stillman, C., and Mock, G. (1996). Developing country GHG mitigation: experience with energy efficiency and renewable energy policies and programs. Climate Change Analysis Workshop: June 1996, Springfield, VA. The International Institute for Energy Conservation.

Kozloff, K. (April 1998). Electricity sector reform in developing countries. Research Report. Washington, DC: Renewable Energy Policy Project.

Mann, M. K. and Spath, P. L. (December 1997). Life Cycle Assessment of a Biomass Gasification Combined-Cycle System. NREL/TP-430-23076, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO.

Martinot, E. (September 1998). Energy efficiency and renewable energy in Russia. Energy Policy, 26, No. 11.

Moore, C. and Ihle, J. (October 1999). Renewable Energy Policy Outside the United States. Issue Brief No. 14. Renewable Energy Policy Project, Washington, DC.

National Laboratory Directors. (October 1997). Technology Opportunities to Reduce

US Greenhouse Gas Emissions. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN.

Northrup, M. (January/February 1997). Selling solar: financing household solar energy in the developing world. Solar Today, 11, No. 1.

Ogden, J. M. (March 1999). Strategies for developing low emission hydrogen energy systems: implications of CO2 sequestration. Proceedings of the 10th National Hydrogen Association Meeting, Arlington, VA.

OTA (Office of Technology Assessment). (August 1993). Development Assistance, Export Promotion and Environmental Technology. US Congress, Washington, DC: Background Paper.

OTA (Office of Technology Assessment). (September 1994). Studies of the Environmental Costs of Electricity. OTA-ETI-134, Washington, DC.

OTA. (September 1995). Renewing Our Energy Future. OTA-ETI-614 Office of Technology Assessment, Congress of the United States.

Padro, C. E. (August 1998). The Road to the Hydrogen Future: Research and

Development in the Hydrogen Program. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Presentation at the US DOE Hydrogen Program Review, April 28-30, 1998, Alexandria, VA.

Reid, W. and Goldemberg, J. (July 1997). Are developing countries already doing as much as industrialized countries to slow climate change? Climate Notes. New York: World Resources Institute.

Renne, D. S. and Pilasky, S. (February 1998). Overview of the Quality and

Completeness of Resource Assessment Data for the APEC Region. APEC #98-RE-01.1, Prepared for the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO.

REPP (Renewable Energy Policy Project). (June 2000). Web site: www.repp.org/articles/pvaction/index_pvactiona.html

Small Hydro Power, Renewable Energy World, July 1999.

Smith, D. R. and Ilyin, M. A. (1990). Wind Energy Evaluation by PG&E. Pacific Gas and Electric Research and Development, San Ramon, CA.

Solar Today, Nov/Dec 1999, p 19.

Steinbauer, T., Willke, T., and Shires, T. (1998). Natural gas pipelines: key infrastructure for world development. Global Energy Sector: Concepts for a Sustainable Future. US Agency for International Development. Climate Change Initiative 1998-2002. Washington, DC.

Stone, J. and Ullal, H. (1999). Electrifying rural India. Solar Today, 13, No. 6, November/December, p. 19.

Swezey, B. and Bird, L. (August 1999). Information Brief on Green Power

Marketing. NREL/TP-620-26901, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO.

Taylor, R. (July, 1998). Lessons Learned from the NREL Village Power Program. National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Golden, CO. Paper presented at the Second World Conference and Exhibition on Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conversion, Vienna, Austria.

Trainer, F. E. (1996). Book review: critical comments on renewable energy. Energy, 21, No. 6, pp 511-17.

UNDP/ESMAP (Joint UNDP/World Bank Energy Sector Management Assistance Programme). (May 1998). Rural Energy and Development Roundtable. Washington, DC: The World Bank Report No. 202/98.

United Nations, (July 2000). Information Unit on Climate Change (IUCC), UNEP. Website: www.unfccc.de/resource/ccsites/senegal/fact/fs230.htm

van Beek, A., and Benner, J. H. (June 1998). International Benchmark Study on

Renewable Energy. Ministerie van Economische Zaken. Walsh, M. (1999). Oak Ridge National Lab. Unpublished biomass resource data.

Personal e-mail communication, July 29. Wan, Y. and Parson, B. (August 1993). Factors Relevant to Utility Integration of Intermittent Renewable Technologies. NREL/TP-463-4953, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO. WEC (World Energy Council). (September 1993). Renewable Energy Resources:

Opportunities and Constraints 1990-2020. WEC (World Energy Council) (1998), 17th Congress. London, UK: World Energy Council, pp. 260, 267.

Solar Power

Solar Power

Start Saving On Your Electricity Bills Using The Power of the Sun And Other Natural Resources!

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment