List of Abbreviations

atomic mass accelerator

Advisory Committee on Reactor Safety actinide

Accelerator-Driven Systems

AEC Atomic Energy Commission

AEEI Autonomous Energy Efficiency Improvement

ALMR Advanced Liquid-Metal Reactor

ASCI Advanced Super Computer Initiative

ATW Accelerator Transmutation of (nuclear) Waste

BAU Business-As-Usual

BU(GWtd/tonneHM) Fission fuel burn-up

BWR Boiling Water Reactor c(m/s) Speed of light in vacuum

CCGT Combined-Cycle Gas Turbine

CHINA+ China plus neighboring CPEs

CPE Centrally Planned Economy

CTAX($/tonneC/15yr) carbon tax rate

CY Calendar Year

DF Decontamination Factor (input/output)

DOE Department of Energy

DOR Direct Oxide Reduction

DP DOE Defense Programs Office

DPY Days Per Year

DU Depleted Uranium

E3 Energy-Economics-Environment

EE(EJ/yr) Electrical Energy demand

EEU Eastern Europe

EI(MJ/$) Energy Intensity PE/GNP

ELWR Evolutionary LWR

EPA Environmental Protection Agency

ERB Edmonds, Reilly, Barns model (Edmonds and

Reilly, 1985)

FE Fossil Energy

FP Fission Product

FPY Full-Power Year

FSB Fast-Spectrum Burner

FSU Former Soviet Union

/NE NE fraction of PE

/MOX (final) volume core fraction of LWR operated on

/UTC (final) factor increase in UTC

GCR Gas Cooled Reactor

GDP(B$/yr) Gross Domestic Product

GE General Electric

GEN(TWeh) annual eletricity generation

GHG Green House Gas

GNP(B$/yr) Gross National Product

HLW High Level Waste

HM Heavy Metal

HV High Variant

HVAC Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning

IACS Integrated Actinide Conversion System (Arthur et al., 1996, 1998)

IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency

IFR Integral Fast Reactor

IIASA International Institute for Applied Systems


IMRSS International Monitored Retrievable Surface


IND India

IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Control

IPP Independent Power Producer

IRV industrial revolution

JCAE Joint Committee of Atomic Energy

L Low l(m) scale length

LA Latin America

LEU Low-Enrichment Uranium (<20% 235U)

LLFP Long-Lived Fission Product

LV Low Variant

LWR Light-Water (fission) Reactor

M(kg) atomic mass

AM(kg) mass deficit

Mp(kg) proton mass

Mn(kg) neutron mass

Mpu(tonnePu) total plutonium inventory (MREA + MACC + MREC +


MTAX carbon tax multiplier upon return to the economy

MU(MtonneU) integrated natural-uranium resource usage

ME Middle East

MHTGR Modular High-Temperature Gas (cooled) Reactor

MOX Mixed (plutonium, uranium) Oxide fission fuel

MPC&A Material Protection, Control and Accounting

MS Molten Salt

MV Medium Variant

Ncyc number of plutonium recycles in LWRs

NAFR North Africa

NDT Non-Destructive Testing

NE(GWeyr/yr) Nuclear Energy Demand

NEA Nuclear Energy Agency

NPL Nuclear Pumped Laser

NPP Nuclear Power Plant

NPT Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty

NRC Nuclear Regulation Commission

NW Nuclear Weapon

O&M operating and maintenance

OECD Organization for Economic Cooperation and

Development (OECD-E + OECD-P)



OT Once-Through LWR

PE(GWe) NE capacity

PE(EJ/yr) Primary Energy demand

PHWR Pressurized Heavy-Water Reactor

PRA Probability Risk Analysis

Prem person rem

PRFC Proliferation-Resistant Fuel Cycle

PRI Proliferation Risk Index

PUREX Plutonium-Uranium Recovery Extraction

PV Present Value, photovoltaic (solar)

PWR Pressurized-Water Reactor (LWR)

ppmv parts per million by volume RCO2 (GtonneC/yr)

carbon dioxide emissions, same as RC

RHLW(m3/yr) rate of HLW generation

RSF(ktonneHM/yr) rate of spent-fuel generation

Ru(ktonneU/yr) rate of natural uranium use

RBMK Russian water-cooled graphite-moderated reactor

RE Renewable Energy, Rare Earth FP

REA reactor plutonium

REC plutonium in spent fuel not available for use in

REF reforming economies (FSU + EEU)

rem Roetgen equivalent man







W(GtonneC) W(GtonneC)




Reactor Grade plutonium

Radkowsky thorium fuel reactor (Galperin et al.,

1997) recycled uranium Southern Africa self-consistent nuclear energy systems (Takagi et al.


Secondary Energy demand South and East Asia

Separated Plutonium in Processing or fresh fuel Spent Fuel

Stockholm International Peace Research Institute

Short-Lived Fission Product time constant for UTC increase/decrease

Three Mile Island total, world transuranic elements carbon tax designator beginning, ending year for NE cost modifications unit carbon tax

Unit Total Cost for LWR

global average utility function for nuclear proliferation United States United Kingdom Russian PWR speed integrated carbon dioxide emissions atmospheric carbon dioxide inventory, ppmv = W/2.13

atmospheric carbon dioxide inventory in the year

~ 1800 (IRV = industrial revolution) integrated carbon dioxide emissions, same as W 235U concentration in product (p), feed (f), and tailing (t) streams associated with uranium enrichment plant 235U, plutonium concentration in spent fuel from LWR.

atomic number (change)

fractional reduction on carbon dioxide emissions displaced CO2 emission rate global average surface temperature rise annual improvement in secondary energy, energy service conversion, an AEEI-like parameter (Nordhaus, 1991a,b) thermal-to-electric conversion efficiency

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