K Nuclear I I PV

Fossil

I Wind 2ZZZS Fuel Cell

Electric Load

(c) System with 0.1 TW of gas capacity. The fuel cell is called upon more often to serve larger portions of the load on windless evenings and mornings. Excess wind and some weekend solar energy produce the hydrogen needed for the fuel cell. The wind capacity has reached its practical limit of 1.0 TW capacity. Although there is 1.0 TW of wind capacity in this system, it is not always fully dispatched. For example, at around hours 10 and 30 only about 0.8 TW is dispatched even though at these hours there is fully 1.0 TW available. This is because it is not economic to add enough electrolysis, compression, and liquefaction to accept the full output of the wind, PV, and nuclear simultaneously since such high outputs only occur occasionally during the year. At hour 121 the fuel cell displaces the gas generator. This is an imperfection in the algorithm's solution which occurs a few instances per year.

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