Definitions of Special Terms

Al = aluminum

1 bbl = one barrel of oil = 42 US gallons — 159 liters 1 billion = 1 X 109 (also = 1 giga = 1 G) C= carbon

°C = temperature measured in degrees Celsius

D = duty cycle (fraction of a complete cycle in which action occurs)

e = electric (e.g. 1 We = 1 Watt of electric power)

EO = Earth orbit, an orbit about the Earth

GDP = gross domestic product

Geo = geosynchronous orbit about Earth (satellite stays fixed in sky directly above the equator of Earth) 1 GHz = 1 X 109 cycle per second

1 GWs = one gigawatt of solar energy in free space (above the atmosphere of Earth)

1 GtC = one gigaton of carbon 1 GTce = 1 billion or gigaton of coal

1 GTce = Energy released by burning one billion or one gigaton of coal (—0.93 TWt-y = 2.93 X 1019 Joules)

1 GToe = Energy released by burning one gigaton of oil (—1.33 TWt-y = 4.2 X 1019 Joules) He = helium

1 J = 1 Joule = 1 Newton of force acting through 1 meter (m) of length (a measure of energy) 1 k = 1 kilo = 1 X 103

1 kg = one kilogram of mass (1 kg exerts 1 Newton of force, = 1 kg-m/sec2, under 9.8 m/sec2 acceleration; 1 Newton of force —0.225 pounds of force) 1 km = one kilometer = 1000 meters (measure of length) 1 km2 = one square kilometer of area (= 1 X 106 m2) 1 kWe = 1 kilowatt of electric power (functionally equivalent to — 3 kWt) 1 kWt = 1 kilowatt of thermal power

LEO = low Earth orbit (an object in low altitude orbit about the Earth, <1000 km altitude)

LO = lunar orbit, an orbit about the Moon LSP = lunar solar power (system) 1 meg = 1 M = 1 X 106

MEO = medium Earth orbit (an object in medium altitude orbit about the Earth, <10000 km altitude) 1 m = one meter (measure of length) 1 m2 = one square meter (measure of area)

1 MWe = one megawatt of electric power (= 1 X 106 watts of electric power) NA = Not applicable

NSA = Not stand alone (a power system, such as wind, that must be attached to other power systems, such as coal or oil, to provide dependable power) N= nitrogen

0 = oxygen

OECD = Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development: Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Korea, Luxembourg, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States

SSPS = space solar power satellite t = thermal (Wt = Watt of thermal power) 1 tera = 1 T = 1 X 1012

1 ton = one tonne (= 1 X 103 kg) (usually 1 ton = 2000 lbs in US units) TSPS = terrestrially based solar power system

TPSP = terrestrially based solar power system using photoconversion devices (e.g., photovoltaics)

TTSP = terrestrially based solar power system using concentrated solar thermal power (e.g., solar power tower surrounded by fields of mirrors) 1 TW = 1 terawatt = 1 X 1012 watts 1 TWe = 1 terawatt of electric power

1 TWe-y = one terawatt-year of electric energy = 3.156 X 1019 Joules of electric energy but often functionally equivalent at end use to ~9.5 X 1019 Joules of input thermal energy

1 TWm = one terawatt of mechanical power 1 TWt = 1 terawatt of thermal power

1 TWt-y = one terawatt-year of thermal energy = 3.156 X 1019 Joules 1 T$ = 1 X 1012 dollars 1 watt = 1 Joule/sec (measure of power) 1 y = 1 year

1 $ = 1 United States dollar (usually 1990 value) 1 0 = 0.01 $

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