Contents

Power Efficiency Guide

Ultimate Guide to Power Efficiency

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List of contributors page xi

1 Concerns about Climate Change and Global Warming 1

Donald J. Wuebbles, Atul K. Jain and Robert G. Watts

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 The Changing Climate 2

1.3 The Changing Atmospheric Composition 5

1.4 Radiative Forcing and Climate Change 11

1.5 Potential Impacts of Climate change 18

1.6 Policy Considerations 20

1.7 Conclusions 23 References 24

2 Posing the Problem 27

Robert G. Watts

2.1 Scenarios 27

2.2 Energy Implications of the Scenarios 30

2.3 An Engineering Problem 38 References 43

3 Adaptive Strategies for Climate Change 45

Robert J. Lempert and Michael E. Schlesinger

3.1 Introduction 45

3.2 The Case for Adaptive-Decision Strategies 47

3.3 Assessing Adaptive-Decision Strategies 51

3.4 Design of Adaptive-Decision Strategies 58

3.5 Conclusions 78 References 82

4 Energy Efficiency: a Little Goes a Long Way 87

Susan J. Hassol, Neil D. Strachan and Hadi Dowlatabadi

4.1 Introduction 87

4.2 What is Energy Efficiency? 90

4.3 Historical Trends and Future Predictions 92

4.4 Developing Nations and Uncertainty in Future Energy Use 97

4.5 Viewpoints on Energy Efficiency 101

4.6 The Development of Energy Efficient Technologies 102

4.7 Adoption of Energy Efficiency 104

4.8 Policy Aspects of Energy Efficiency 107

4.9 Efficiency Case Studies 111

4.10 Conclusions 116 References 118

5 The Potential of Renewable Energy to Reduce Carbon Emissions 123

Walter Short and Patrick Keegan

5.1 Introduction and Overview 123

5.2 Characteristics of Renewable Energy Technologies 125

5.3 Market Issues 145

5.4 Regional Status and Potential of Renewables to Address

Climate Change 158

5.5 Scenarios for the Future 167

5.6 System-level Deployment 168

5.7 Policy Requirements 173 References 177

6 Carbonless Transportation and Energy Storage in Future Energy

Systems 181 Gene D. Berry and Alan D. Lamont

6.1 Carbonless Energy Carriers 181

6.2 Transition Paths Toward Carbonless Energy 187

6.3 Hydrogen Transportation Technology 198

6.4 Displacing Natural Gas from Transportation 200

6.5 Alternatives to Hydrogen Energy Storage 202

6.6 Hydrogen Vehicles as Buffer Energy Storage 203

6.7 Strategies for Reducing Carbon Emissions 203 References 204 Appendices 206

7 What Can Nuclear Power Accomplish to Reduce CO2 Emissions 211

Robert Krakowski and Richard Wilson

7.1 Overview 211

7.2 Background 218

7.3 Public Acceptance 244

7.4 Future Directions 254

7.5 Incorporating Nuclear Energy into Energy-Economic-

Environmental (E3) Models 285

7.6 Conclusion: A Possible Future for Nuclear Energy 298 List of Abbreviations 302 References 307 Appendices 315

8 Nuclear Fusion Energy 325

Arthur W. Molvik and John L. Perkins

8.1 Introduction 325

8.2 Potential of Fusion 327

8.3 Approaches to Fusion Energy 331

8.4 Where to from Here? 340 List of Abbreviations 342 References 342

9 Energy Prosperity Within the Twenty-first Century and Beyond:

Options and the Unique Roles of the Sun and the Moon 345

David R. Criswell

9.0 Summary 345

9.1 Twenty-first Century Challenges: People, Power and Energy 345

9.2 Sources to Supply 60 TWt or 20 TWe Commercial Power by 2050 349

9.3 Lunar Solar Power (LSP) System 384

9.4 LSP System Versus Other Power System Options at 20 Twe 393

9.5 Implications of the Lunar Solar Power System 400 Acknowledgements 402 Definitions of Special Terms 403 References and Notes 405

10 Geoengineering the Climate: History and Prospect 411

David W. Keith

10.1 Introduction 411

10.2 Defining Geoengineering 412

10.3 History 414

10.4 Taxonomy and Review of Proposals to Manipulate the

Climate 425

10.5 Evaluating Geoengineering 437

10.6 Summary and Implications 447 Acknowledgment 449 References 450

Index

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Getting Started With Solar

Getting Started With Solar

Do we really want the one thing that gives us its resources unconditionally to suffer even more than it is suffering now? Nature, is a part of our being from the earliest human days. We respect Nature and it gives us its bounty, but in the recent past greedy money hungry corporations have made us all so destructive, so wasteful.

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