Energy efficiency vs energy intensity

It is easy to confuse energy efficiency and energy intensity. Energy efficiency as we describe it above is a bottom-up view applied to individual activities. We describe energy intensity as a top-down or aggregated look at energy use in an economy. For consistency and clarity, the rest of this chapter will use the term efficiency for specific activities and intensity for aggregated energy use. However, the relationship between the two is far more complex and controversial than a simple...

Lock in

The prevailing view of markets is that a free market will select the most economic technology or fuel. However, the most economic technology at the margin for the next incremental investment is not necessarily the same as the most economic investment from a long-term perspective. For plants with large infrastructure requirements, an investment at the margin can be much reduced from the full investment cost. As an example, compare wind against coal for power generation. In a number of ways, coal...

Energy balance emissivity

Control of long-lived radiatively active gases is the only important means of controlling emissivity.13 We focus here on CO2. Following the discussion in Section 10.2.2 above, we may usefully distinguish between (i) reduction in fossil fuel use, (ii) reduction in CO2 emission per unit of fossil carbon used, and (iii) control of CO2 by removal from the atmosphere. Following the discussion above (Section 10.2.2) we refer to these as conventional mitigation, carbon management, and geoengineering,...

General setup and limitations of a model

Models of energy-economic-environmental (E3) interactions provide a disciplined way in which long-term, global implications of a range of possible stories of the future might be evolved and examined. Rather than attempting to generate predictions of the future, these stories or scenarios are generated using relatively simple, transparent, and surprise-free deterministic models and assumptions to provide a future view that can be understood in terms of a relatively small set of input...

References

Albright, D., Berkhout, F., and Walker, W. (1997), Plutonium and Highly Enriched Uranium World Inventories, Capabilities and Policies, 1996, Oxford University Press. Arthur, E. D. and Wagner, R. L., Jr. (1996), The Los Alamos Nuclear Vision Project, Proc. Uranium Institute 21st Annual Symposium, London, UK (September 4-6). Arthur, E. D., Cunningham, P. T., and Wagner, R. L., Jr. (1998), Architecture for Nuclear Energy in the 21st Century, Los Alamos National Laboratory report LA-UR-98-1931...

Hydrogen Transportation Technology

US transportation fuel use is projected to reach nearly 4.6 trillion kWh, even if the Partnership for the Next-Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) succeeds in tripling automobile fleet fuel economy by 2020. Light-duty passenger vehicles will then account for approximately 25 of fuel use, aircraft for 35 , and heavy trucks for 40 . Fueling this demand with natural gas will produce direct carbon emissions of 248 mmtC yr. It will be easiest for hydrogen to displace natural gas in the light-duty vehicle...

Approaches to Fusion Energy

Historically, two approaches to harnessing fusion power for energy production have been followed. The first is magnetic fusion energy (MFE) which creates magnetic bottles that need to hold the plasma for a time of order one second (Chen, 1974 Sheffield, 1994). The best known example is the tokamak, a toroidal geometry. (A toroid is a donut shaped configuration, which is preferred for most magnetic fusion applications, because magnetic field lines can encircle the toroid nearly endlessly without...

Potential Impacts of Climate Change

In the previous sections, we briefly discussed projected changes in climate as a result of current and potential human activities. There are many uncertainties in our predictions, particularly with regard to the timing, magnitude, and regional patterns of climate change. At this point, potential changes in climate globally are better understood than the changes that could occur locally or regionally. However, the impacts of interest from climate change are primarily local to regional in scale....

Energy analyst vs corporate decision maker vs individual

Projections of potential and achievable energy efficiency depend on the viewpoint of the analyst and in part allude to the bottom-up versus top-down debate. Technology-based bottom-up models indicate that enormous opportunity exists to improve energy efficiency with current technology at no net cost (the energy savings equal or outweigh the outlays) and that various market failures are to blame for the slow adoption of these technologies. Traditional top-down macroeconomic models, on the other...

Innovative Energy Strategies forC02 Stabilization

More informal ton - www.cambridge.org 9780521807258 Innovative Energy Strategies for CO2 Stabilization The vast majority of the world's climate scientists believe that the build-up in the atmosphere of the heat-trapping gas carbon dioxide will lead to global warming in the next century unless we burn less coal, oil and natural gas. At the same time, it is clear that energy must be supplied in increasing amounts if the developed world is to avoid economic collapse and if developing countries are...

Politics and law

The politics of geoengineering rests on two central themes the first emerges from the fact that many geoengineering schemes are amenable to implementation by independent action, whereas the second relates to geoengineering's status as a form of moral hazard. First consider independent action. Unlike other responses to climate change (e.g., abatement or adaptation), geoengineering could be implemented by one or a few countries acting alone. Various political concerns arise from this fact with...

Radiative Forcing and Climate Change

A perturbation to the atmospheric concentration of an important greenhouse gas, or the distribution of aerosols, induces a radiative forcing that can affect climate. Radiative forcing of the surface-troposphere system is defined as the change in net radiative flux at the tropopause due to a change in either solar or infrared radiation (IPCC, 1996a). Generally, this net flux is calculated after allowing for stratospheric temperatures to re-adjust to radiative equilibrium. A positive radiative...

Ussr

In the USSR, sustained interest in weather modification predated WWII. Beginning with the establishment of Leningrad's Institute of Rainmaking in 1932, work on cloud modification moved outside the laboratory, with airborne cloud seeding experiments using calcium chloride beginning as early as 1934 and continuing until 1939 (Zikeev and Doumani, 1967). Work resumed immediately after the war with tests of cloud seeding using dry ice (1947) and silver iodide (1949). In the 1950s and early 1960s...

Technological change as endogenous and interactive with patterns of

Energy efficiency is not technological opportunity limited by social, regulatory or political factors. This bold statement is designed to emphasize the point that technological change and energy efficiency are an integrated and endogenous aspect of the design and operation of economic activities. Future efficient technologies (and their successful commercialization) will be as much a consequence of energy prices, social attitudes about environmental issues and political energy priorities as of...

Usa

The 1946 discovery of cloud seeding by Schaefer and Langmuir (Schaefer, 1946) at the General Electric research labs ignited a commercial boom in weather modification.2 Within five years private cloud seeding ventures had total annual receipts of 3-5 million, and in 1951 had targeted an area equal to 14 of the landmass of the lower 48 states (ACWC57, see Table 10.1). The boom rapidly attracted government attention with the first court case involving 2 Contemporary documents, and more recent...

Overview of the LSP system

Figure 9.4 shows the general features of the LSP System. Pairs of power bases on opposite limbs of the moon convert dependable solar power to microwaves. The Earth stays in the same region of the sky as seen from a given power base on the moon. Thus, over the course of a lunar month, pairs of bases can continuously beam power toward collectors, called rectennas, on Earth (shown in the lower right of Figure 9.2). Rectennas are simply specialized types of centimeter-size TV antennas and electric...

Etymology and definition

In this review geoengineering is defined as intentional large-scale manipulation of the environment. Scale and intent play central roles in the definition. For an action to be geoengineering, the environmental change must be the primary goal rather than a side effect, and the intent and effect of the manipulation must be large in scale e.g., continental to global. Two examples serve to demonstrate the roles of scale and intent. First, intent without scale. Ornamental gardening is the...

Definitions of Special Terms

1 bbl one barrel of oil 42 US gallons 159 liters 1 billion 1 X 109 (also 1 giga 1 G) C carbon C temperature measured in degrees Celsius D duty cycle (fraction of a complete cycle in which action occurs) e electric (e.g. 1 We 1 Watt of electric power) EO Earth orbit, an orbit about the Earth Geo geosynchronous orbit about Earth (satellite stays fixed in sky directly above the equator of Earth) 1 GHz 1 X 109 cycle per second 1 GWs one gigawatt of solar energy in free space (above the atmosphere...

Transition Paths Toward Carbonless Energy

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has developed a network optimization model (Figure 6.1) to examine these three stages of integrating renewables into utilities (reliability, intermittent intensive electric systems, and carbonless transportation). By constructing and analyzing model scenarios of future electricity and transportation systems attempts we quantify the Figure 6.1 Schematic of a coupled utility electric generation and transportation system using nuclear, fossil, and...

Carbonless Energy Carriers

Electricity is the highest quality energy carrier, increasingly dominant throughout the world's energy infrastructure. Ultimately electricity use can expand to efficiently meet virtually all stationary energy applications, eliminating stationary end-use carbon emissions. This approach is unlikely to work in transportation, however, due to the high cost and low energy density of electricity storage. Chemical energy carriers, such as hydrogen, can more effectively serve transportation fuel and...

Twentyfirst Century Challenges People Power and Energy

At the end of the 20th century, the 0.9 billion people of the economically Developed Nations of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) used 6.8 kWt person of thermal power. The 5.1 billion people of the Developing Nations use 1.6 kWt person (Nakicenovic et al., 1998). If the large per capita use of power by former states of the Soviet Union is subtracted, the other non-OECD nations use less than 1 kWt person of commercial power (Criswell, 1998). The majority of people...

Background

Lmfbr Flow Diagram

7.2.1 How did we get here A brief history of nuclear energy Several descriptions of the history of nuclear energy clearly overlap the history of nuclear weapons (Goldschmidt, 1982). In Appendix A we show a chronology of important events related to the development of nuclear fission, starting with nuclear weaponry and proceeding to civilian nuclear energy. In addition, general books about nuclear energy discuss the history and the basic issues very clearly (Bodansky, 1997). An atomic nucleus of...