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separate IPCC Source/Sink Category 2, industrial processes.

Row 6: Transport contains emissions from the combustion of fuel for all transport activity, regardless of the sector, except for international marine bunkers and international aviation. This includes domestic aviation, domestic navigation, road, rail and pipeline transport, and corresponds to IPCC Source/Sink Category 1 A 3. In addition, the IEA data are not collected in a way that allows the autoproducer consumption to be split by specific end-use and therefore, this publication shows autoproducers as a separate item. See Row 3, Unallocated autoproducers.

Note: Starting in the 2006 edition, military consumption previously included in domestic aviation and in road should be in non-specified other sectors. See the section on Differences between IEA estimates and UNFCCC submissions, for further details.

Row 7: Road contains the emissions arising from fuel use in road vehicles, including the use of agricultural vehicles on highways. This corresponds to the IPCC Source/Sink Category 1 A 3 b.

Row 8: Other Sectors contains the emissions from commercial/institutional activities, agriculture/forestry, fishing, residential and other emissions not specified elsewhere that are included in the IPCC Source/Sink Categories 1 A 4 and 1 A 5. In the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, the category also includes emissions from auto-producers in the commercial/residential/agricultural sectors that generate electricity and/or heat. The IEA data are not collected in a way that allows the energy consumption to be split by specific end-use and therefore, this publication shows autoproducers as a separate item. See Row 3, Unallocated autoproducers.

Row 9: Residential contains all emissions from fuel combustion in households. This corresponds to IPCC Source/Sink Category 1 A 4 b.

Row 10: Reference Approach contains total CO2 emissions from fuel combustion as calculated using the IPCC Reference Approach. The Reference Approach is based on the supply of energy in a country and as a result, all inventories calculated using this method include fugitive emissions from energy transformation (e.g. from oil refineries) which are normally included in Category 1 B. For this reason, Reference Approach estimates are likely to overestimate national CO2 emissions. In these tables, the difference between the Sectoral Approach and the Reference Approach includes statistical differences, product transfers, transformation losses and distribution losses.

Row 11: Differences due to losses and/or transformation contains emissions that result from the transformation of energy from a primary fuel to a secondary or tertiary fuel. Included here are solid fuel transformation, oil refineries, gas works and other fuel transformation industries. These emissions are normally reported as fugitive emissions in the IPCC Source/Sink Category 1 B, but will be included in 1 A in inventories that are calculated using the IPCC Reference Approach. Theoretically, this category should show relatively small emissions representing the loss of carbon by other ways than combustion, such as evaporation or leakage.

Negative emissions for one product and positive emissions for another product would imply a change in the classification of the emission source as a result of an energy transformation between coal and gas, between coal and oil, etc. In practice, however, it often proves difficult to correctly account for all inputs and outputs in energy transformation industries, and to separate energy that is transformed from energy that is combusted. Therefore, the row Differences due to losses and/or transformation sometimes shows quite large positive emissions or even negative ones due to problems in the underlying energy data.

Row 12: Statistical differences can be due to unexplained discrepancies in the underlying energy data. They can also be caused by differences between emissions calculated using the Reference Approach and the Sectoral Approach.

Row 13: International marine bunkers contains emissions from fuels burned by ships of all flags that are engaged in international navigation. The international navigation may take place at sea, on inland lakes and waterways, and in coastal waters. Consumption by ships engaged in domestic navigation is excluded. The domestic/international split is determined on the basis of port of departure and port of arrival, and not by the flag or nationality of the ship. Consumption by fishing vessels and by military forces is also excluded. Emissions from international marine bunkers should be excluded from the national totals. This corresponds to IPCC Source/Sink Category 1 A 3 d i.

Row 14: International aviation contains emissions from fuels used by aircraft for international aviation. Fuels used by airlines for their road vehicles are excluded. The domestic/international split should be determined on the basis of departure and landing locations and not by the nationality of the airline. Emissions from international aviation should be excluded from the national totals. This corresponds to IPCC Source/Sink Category 1 A 3 a i.

Figures 2 and 3: Emissions by sector

The sector Other includes emissions from commercial and public services, agriculture/forestry and fishing. Emissions from unallocated autoproducers are included in Electricity and heat.

Figure 5: Electricity generation by fuel

The product Other includes geothermal, solar, wind, combustible renewables and waste, etc. Electricity generation includes both main activity producer and autoproducer electricity.


International marine bunkers for residual fuel oil in the period 1971-1983 were estimated on the basis of 1984 figures and the data reported as domestic navigation in the energy balance.


Note by Turkey:

With respect to Cyprus, Turkey reserves its position as stated in its declaration of 1 May 2004. The information in the report under the heading Cyprus relates to the southern part of the Island. There is no single authority representing both Turkish and Greek Cypriot people on the Island. Turkey recognises the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC).

Note by all the European Union Member States of the OECD and the European Commission:

The Republic of Cyprus is recognised by all members of the United Nations with the exception of Turkey. The information in this report relates to the area under the effective control of the Government of the Republic of Cyprus.


The data reported as lignite in the energy balance have been considered as oil shale for the calculation of CO2 emissions.


The methodology for calculating main activity electricity and heat production from gas changed in 2000.


Prior to 1990, gas use in commercial/public services was included in residential.


For four consecutive years, the IEA received revisions from the Japanese Administration. The first set of revisions received in 2004 increased the 1990 supply by 5% for coal, 2% for natural gas and 0.7% for oil compared to the previous data. This led to an increase of 2.5% in 1990 CO2 emissions calculated using the Reference Approach while the Sectoral Approach remained fairly constant. For the 2006 edition, the IEA received revisions to the coal and oil data which had a significant impact on both the energy data and the CO2 emissions. The most significant revisions occurred for coke oven coke, naphtha, blast furnace gas and petroleum coke. These revisions affected consumption rather than supply in the years concerned. As a result, the sectoral approach CO2 emissions increased for all the years, however at different rates. For example, the sectoral approach CO2 emissions for 1990 were 4.6% higher than those calculated for the 2005 edition while the 2003 emissions were 1.1% higher than those of the previous edition. Due to the impact these successive revisions have had on the final energy balance as well as on CO2 emissions, the IEA was in close contact with the Japanese Administration to better understand the reasons be-hind these changes. These changes are mainly due to the Government of Japan's efforts to improve the input-output balances in the production of oil products and coal products in response to inquiries from the UNFCCC Secretariat. To cope with this issue, the Japanese Administration established a working group in March 2004. The working group completed its work in April 2006. Many of its conclusions were incorporated in the 2006 edition but some further revisions to the time series (especially in industry and other sectors) were submitted for the 2007 edition.

Netherlands Antilles

Prior to 1992, the Reference Approach overstates emissions since data for lubricants and bitumen (which store carbon) are not available.

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