Key sources

In May 2000, the IPCC Plenary accepted the report on Good Practice Guidance and Uncertainty Management in National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. The report provides good practice guidance to assist countries in determining their key source categories. By identifying these key sources in the national inventory, inventory agencies can prioritise their efforts and improve their overall estimates.

The Good Practice Guidance identifies a key source category as one that is prioritised within the national inventory system because its estimate has a significant influence on a country's total inventory of direct greenhouse gases in terms of the absolute level of emissions, the trend in emissions, or both.

For a more complete description of the IPCC methodology for determining key sources, see Chapter 5, IPCC methodologies.

In the Good Practice Guidance, the recommendation for choosing the level of the key source analysis is to "disaggregate to the level where emission factors are distinguished. In most inventories, this will be the main fuel types. If emission factors are determined independently for some sub-source categories, these should be distinguished in the analysis."

Since the emission estimates in this publication were produced using the default emission factors from the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, this means that the fuel combustion categories would have been divided into:

stationary combustion - coal stationary combustion - oil stationary combustion - gas mobile combustion - coal mobile combustion - oil mobile combustion - gas

Clearly this level of aggregation is not particularly useful in identifying where additional work is needed in refining the inventory. It does not take into account the possibility of improving data collection methods, improving emission factors or using a higher tier calculation for certain key sectors within the energy from fuel combustion source category. For this reason the IEA has disaggregated the key source analysis to the same level of detail presented in the country tables of this publication. For each country, the 11 largest sources, split by coal, oil, gas and other, are shown in the key sources table.

To calculate the level assessment, the IEA has started with the CO2 emissions from fuel combustion as calculated by the IEA. To supplement this, where possible, the IEA has used the emissions that were submitted by the Annex I Parties to the UNFCCC in the 2009 submission of the Common Reporting Format for CO2 (only fugitive), CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs and SF6, not taking into account CO2 emissions/removals from land use, land use change and forestry.2

For the non-Annex I Parties, CO2 emissions from fuel combustion were from the IEA and the rest of the 2007 emissions were estimated by PBL.

The cumulative contribution only includes the 11 largest key sources of CO2 from fuel combustion. As a result, in most cases the cumulative contribution will not be 95% as recommended in the Good Practice Guidance and key sources from fugitive emissions, industrial processes, solvents, agriculture and waste will not be shown. The percentage of CO2 emissions from fuel combustion in total greenhouse-gas emissions has been included as a memo item at the bottom of the table.

Table of CO2 emissions by sector

Row 1: Sectoral Approach contains total CO2 emissions from fuel combustion as calculated using the IPCC Tier 1 Sectoral Approach and corresponds to IPCC Source/Sink Category 1 A. Emissions calculated using a Sectoral Approach include emissions only when the fuel is actually combusted.

2. As recommended in the Good Practice Guidance.

Row 2: Main activity producer electricity and heat contains the sum of emissions from main activity producer electricity generation, combined heat and power generation and heat plants. Main activity producers (formerly known as public utilities) are defined as those undertakings whose primary activity is to supply the public. They may be publicly or privately owned. Emissions from own on-site use of fuel are included. This corresponds to IPCC Source/Sink Category 1 A 1 a.

Row 3: Unallocated autoproducers contains the emissions from the generation of electricity and/or heat by autoproducers. Autoproducers are defined as undertakings that generate electricity and/or heat, wholly or partly for their own use as an activity which supports their primary activity. They may be privately or publicly owned. In the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, these emissions would normally be distributed between industry, transport and "other" sectors.

Row 4: Other energy industries contains emissions from fuel combusted in petroleum refineries, for the manufacture of solid fuels, coal mining, oil and gas extraction and other energy-producing industries. This corresponds to the IPCC Source/Sink Categories 1 A 1 b and 1 A 1 c. According to the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, emissions from coke inputs to blast furnaces can either be counted here or in the industrial processes source/sink category. Within detailed sectoral calculations, certain non-energy processes can be distinguished. In the reduction of iron in a blast furnace through the combustion of coke, the primary purpose of the coke oxidation is to produce pig iron and the emissions can be considered as an industrial process. Care must be taken not to double count these emissions in both energy and industrial processes. In the IEA estimations, these emissions have been included in this category.

Row 5: Manufacturing industries and construction contains the emissions from combustion of fuels in industry. The IPCC Source/Sink Category 1 A 2 includes these emissions. However, in the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, the IPCC category also includes emissions from industry autoproducers that generate electricity and/or heat. The IEA data are not collected in a way that allows the energy consumption to be split by specific end-use and therefore, this publication shows autoproducers as a separate item. See Row 3, Unallocated autoproducers. Manufacturing industries and construction also includes emissions from coke inputs into blast furnaces, which may be reported either in the transformation sector, the industry sector or the

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