The estimates of CO2 emissions in this publication are based on the 1996 IPCC Guidelines and represent the total emissions from fuel combustion. Emissions have been calculated using both the IPCC Reference Approach and the IPCC Sectoral Approach (which corresponds to IPCC Source/Sink Category 1 A). Reference Approach totals may include certain fugitive emissions from energy transformation which should normally be included in Category 1 B. National totals do not include emissions from international marine bunkers and international aviation. See Chapter 1, IEA emissions estimates for further details.
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