Reference Approach

Carbon dioxide emissions are produced when carbon-based fuels are burned. National emissions estimates are based on the amounts of fuels used and on the carbon content of fuels. Fuel combustion is widely dispersed throughout most activities in national economies and a complete record of the quantities of each fuel type consumed in each end-use activity is a considerable task, which some countries have not undertaken. Fortunately, it is possible to obtain a relatively accurate estimate of...

Hong Kong China Hong Kong Chine Key indicators

Ratios are based on the Sectoral Approach. Main activity producer elec. and heat Manufacturing industries and construction Diff. due to losses and or transformation Memo international aviation bunkers * Other includes industrial waste and non-renewable municipal waste. * Other includes industrial waste and non-renewable municipal waste. Key sources for CO2 emissions from fuel combustion in 2007 Main activity prod. elec. and heat - coal peat Main activity prod. elec. and heat - gas Manufacturing...

Energy and climate change

In its Fourth Assessment Report,1 the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)2 concluded, Most of the observed increase in global average temperatures since the mid-20th century is very likely due to the observed increase in anthropogenic greenhouse-gas concentrations. The language very likely has been upgraded from the likely that was referred to six years earlier in the Third Assessment Report, thus confirming the broad acceptance by scientists of the link between greenhouse-gas...

Energy Data Manager Statistician

Possible Staff Vacancies International Energy Agency, Paris, France The International Energy Agency, based in Paris, acts as energy policy advisor to 27 member countries in their effort to ensure reliable, affordable and clean energy for their citizens. Founded during the oil crisis of 1973-74, the IEA's initial role was to co-ordinate measures in times of oil supply emergencies. As energy markets have changed, so has the IEA. Its mandate has broadened to incorporate the Three E's of balanced...

Annex II North America Annexe II Amrique du Nord

1971 1975 1979 1983 1987 1991 1995 1999 2003 2007 Coal peat mOil Gas Other Figure 5. Electricity generation by fuel 1971 1975 1979 1983 1987 1991 1995 1999 2003 2007 1971 1975 1979 1983 1987 1991 1995 1999 2003 2007 1971 1975 1979 1983 1987 1991 1995 1999 2003 2007 Coal peat mOil Gas Other 1971 1975 1979 1983 1987 1991 1995 1999 2003 2007 Manuf. ind. and construction Figure 4. Reference vs Sectoral Approach Figure 4. Reference vs Sectoral Approach 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2007...

Notes on tables and graphs

Separate IPCC Source Sink Category 2, industrial processes. Row 6 Transport contains emissions from the combustion of fuel for all transport activity, regardless of the sector, except for international marine bunkers and international aviation. This includes domestic aviation, domestic navigation, road, rail and pipeline transport, and corresponds to IPCC Source Sink Category 1 A 3. In addition, the IEA data are not collected in a way that allows the autoproducer consumption to be split by...

Differences between IEA estimates and Unfccc submissions

It is possible to use the IEA CO2 estimates for comparison with the greenhouse-gas inventories reported by countries to the UNFCCC Secretariat. In this way, problems in methods, input data or emission factors may become apparent. However, care should be used in interpreting the results of any comparison since the IEA estimates may differ from a country's official submission for many reasons. A recent comparison of the IEA estimates with the inventories submitted to the UNFCCC showed that for...

Scrutinising the sources of CO2 emissions

Trends in CO2 emissions from fuel combustion illustrate the need for the global economy to shape a more sustainable energy future, with special emphasis first on the industrialised nations, with the highest per capita incomes and that are responsible for the bulk of cumulative emissions. However, with the rapidly growing energy demand of developing countries, it is important that they also strive to use energy in a rational way. Energy Technology Perspectives 2008 shows that enhancing energy...