Ultimate Guide to Power Efficiency

Power Efficiency Guide

The Power Efficiency Guide is a step-by-step guide showing the users how to create their own Home Power Plant. The E-book was created just to explain and help people out of the problem they face because of the lack of electricity. The guide was made to help the users use about 90% of the tools they use regularly in their various houses for the creation of a power generator, which will beneficial to them and their family. The device uses the endless power principle used to make the electric cars constantly charge themselves from the wheels when not being accelerated. It is a unique concept that can be used in every home. It was created in such a way that it would be a quick fix for the users' electricity problem. In other words, when the users purchase it during the day, the users will be able to make use of it before night falls. The process is so easy that even a little child can fix it up. The guide is such that comes at a cheap price and would help in the reduction of the amount the users might have to pay for regular electricity bill due to the number of appliances used at home. Read more here...

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International Energy Agency

The International Energy Agency (IEA), an autonomous agency, was established in November 1974. Its primary mandate was - and is - two-fold to promote energy security amongst its member countries through collective response to physical disruptions in oil supply, and provide authoritative research and analysis on ways to ensure reliable, affordable and clean energy for its 28 member countries and beyond. The IEA carries out a comprehensive programme of energy co-operation among its member countries, each of which is obliged to hold oil stocks equivalent to 90 days of its net imports. The Agency's aims include the following objectives Secure member countries' access to reliable and ample supplies of all forms of energy in particular, through maintaining effective emergency response capabilities in case of oil supply disruptions. Promote sustainable energy policies that spur economic growth and environmental protection in a global context - particularly in terms of reducing greenhouse-gas...

The Economics of Energy Efficiency

Generally the term EE is defined in a technical sense and relates a given level of service to a given level of input. To put it differently, an increase in EE occurs when either energy inputs are reduced for a given level of service or service is increased or enhanced for a given level of input. To be energy efficient per se is to provide services with an energy input that is small relative to a fixed standard or normal input.

Understanding Tradeoffs for a Successful Energy Policy

Existing technologies and approaches can deliver significant gains in EE. However, to date, there has only been limited success in terms of adopting these technologies and approaches by industries and domestic markets. This is because, there is a general belief that inefficient practices are primarily caused by social, economic, informational and institutional actions working against a shift to more energy efficient practices. For example, there is a general acknowledgement of the fact that there are potential gains in areas other than those that directly benefit from improved energy management, but there is a limited understanding of the nature and extent of these 'flow-on' benefits. In formulating energy policy, government agencies need to understand how to use these flow-on benefits to promote a wider adoption of energy efficient practices (Box 1.1). This requires identifying and quantifying the barriers and drivers in terms of factors such as economic growth, environment,...

Energy efficiency Uncovering hidden treasures

Energy efficiency is our best source of energy. Every kilowatt hour of electricity, every litre of oil, every tonne of coal that we do not consume protects the climate and saves money. The implementation of the EU target of a 20 per cent efficiency increase by 2020 alone is estimated to reduce energy costs in Europe by 100 billion Euros per year. Moreover, investments in energy efficiency pay off in many cases with the technology available today. However, awareness of this fact still has to be conveyed to decision-makers in all sectors, to private consumers, managers of small- and medium-sized enterprises and officials responsible for public spending. At the same time, Germany is urging the EU Commission to introduce a more effective and consumer-friendly labelling of energy-using products. Often consumers are unaware of 'hidden costs' caused by energy consumption in standby mode or the overall life-cycle costs of an appliance, although these are often higher than the actual purchase...

Center for Energy Efficiency

BASED IN MOSCOw, the Center for Energy Efficiency (CENEf) is a nonprofit independent Russian organization founded in 1992 to promote energy efficiency and environmental protection in Russia. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratories of Battelle Memorial Institute, the World Wildlife Fund, the Social and Ecological Union (in Russia), and Mikhail Berner, president of the Russian Energy Manager's Association, founded the center. Initial sponsorship was provided by the World Wildlife Fund, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Charles Stewart CENEf was founded with the intention to develop model legislation and policy proposals to implement energy efficiency measures in Russia during its transition to a market economy, while considering economic, environmental, and social impacts implied in such transition. CENEf identified energy efficiency-related issues and developed policy papers on these issues, initiated energy-efficiency projects, and promoted economic cooperation...

Effects of energy consumption on the environment at local and regional levels

Energy consumption results in emissions of pollutants. Local pollution, characteristic of urban areas or caused by emissions from an industrial plant (factory, cement works, refinery, etc.), is converted into regional pollution through accumulation of pollutants in the atmosphere.

Energy policy goals positions and debates

In most countries, energy policy pursues four goals, namely 'access', 'security', 'efficiency' and 'environment'. In developing countries the first goal is likely to constitute the main focus of domestic energy policy. With around 2 billion people worldwide lacking access to basic 'modern' energy services, it is unlikely that environmental concerns would be at the forefront of developing countries' energy policy priorities. In industrial countries, however, all four goals are likely to have significant influence. The desire is for everyone to have access to fuel and electricity on a reliable, continuous basis, and to convert and use it in ways that are not wasteful and do not cause unacceptable harm to human health or the natural environment. Walt Patterson (2006) argues that 'energy policy' has focused too strongly on commercial transactions involving units of fuel and electricity if the policy sphere is 'energy' then it should focus on the complete energy system, including relevant...

Fundamentals of Energy Efficiency

Energy efficiency (EE) is widely viewed as an important element of economic and environmental policy. However, there is little agreement on specific EE goals and the strategies to attain them. The lack of consensus stems from the fact that there are differing views about the meaning of EE and the means of implementing it. How much one will actually benefit from EE depends on how one approaches the issue. Also, the success in EE improvements depends on how well various actors help each other, and how well their actions are integrated. The present chapter aims to explain the nature and purpose of EE as well as its relation to various actors of the society and the environment. The chapter also presents a short overview of the current debate on EE in which the EE gap and the rebound effects are the main constitutes.

Reframing energy policy

In this chapter we have provided several examples where central elements of energy policy have been discursively constructed so as to speak directly to core government priorities, such as economic growth and national security. This has served to maintain the dominance of the current framing of energy policy and to promote certain political interests. This is a challenging observation if one argues that energy policy needs to be reframed. The transition to a low carbon economy may be a good idea. Indeed, it is one that is increasingly central in policy discourses in both developed and developing countries. This does not, however, necessarily mean that this discursive shift will have any specific material impact on energy policy. The institutional constraints on discursive developments highlighted in this chapter still exist and must be confronted (or conformed to) before new policy ideas are likely to gain any influence. Having an impact on the core of energy policy requires...

Why is energy efficiency important

Energy efficiency or how well the fuels are used. This chapter examines the role energy efficiency can play. We will argue that energy efficiency alone can not provide the solution to meet targets for abatement of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This is because the simultaneous and interacting effects of changes in global population, growth or shrinkage in the world economy, and the proportions of various fuels employed to meet energy needs, have a much greater potential to raise or lower GHG emissions. However, we will also argue that energy efficiency is an essential part of the solution to abating GHG emissions to meet global energy demands at a realistic cost. Changes in energy efficiency are affected by a host of technological, social, economic, and political factors. This necessitates that the processes of technological, social, economic, and political change be made an endogenous feature of any model of energy use, whether for specific activities or aggregated for the whole...

Definition of energy efficiency

Before defining energy efficiency it is instructive to define what energy provides. Units of energy are not valued in themselves rather the economic value of energy is derived from the services that it provides keeping the lights on, heating a room or transporting goods and people to a destination. Therefore, energy efficiency is a measure of the energy used in providing a particular level of energy services. Secondly, a general paradigm in which to consider energy efficiency is not one whereby technological innovation offers energy savings that are then limited by high costs, social inertia or political maneuvering. Energy efficiency is instead a complete analysis of how the technical, political and social aspects of some societal undertaking interact both within the specific activity and with other activities. Therefore, some of the most promising mechanisms for energy efficiency may be video-conferencing over the Internet, a firm's drive to ensure lights are switched off in...

Understanding the Energy Efficiency

The question being asked very often is why consumers and firms do not invest in cost-effective energy efficiency opportunities. Partly, the answer is that consumers and firms discount future savings of energy efficiency investments at rates well in excess of market rates for borrowings or savings. This pattern is referred to as the 'energy efficiency gap'.20 To understand the EE gap, it is essential to study (a) the characteristics of markets for energy-efficient technologies (EETs), (b) the nature of institutional energy-related decision making and (c) the nature of an individual consumer's energy-related decision making.

Renewable energy policy and climate policy interactions

This paper explores the relationships between climate policy and renewable energy policy instruments. It shows that, even when CO2 emissions are appropriately priced, specific incentives for supporting the early deployment of renewable energy technologies are justified by the steep learning curves of nascent technologies. This early investment reduces costs in the longer term and makes renewable energy affordable when it needs to be deployed on a very large scale to fully contribute to climate-change mitigation and energy security. The paper also reveals that both CO2 prices and the measures to deploy renewable electricity create wealth transfers between electric utilities and their customers, although in opposite directions. This may be important when considering the political economy of the interactions between CO2 pricing and renewable energy support in the future.

Inherited energy systems sustainable transformations

Post-privatisation energy governance primarily 'sweated' energy assets developed under the preceding period of nationalised energy governance (Helm, 2004a). The physical energy system has been carved up between competing utility companies while new regulatory bodies ensure they compete in energy markets that operate more efficiently. But these new governance arrangements also brought some changes to the energy system such as a 'dash for gas' in electricity supply in the UK and a decline in coal use. Neither of these was as radical or comprehensive as the anticipated transitions to sustainable energy systems (whatever form they take), because that was not the point. The point was to make energy an efficient and profitable business sector. It is unsurprising that energy policymakers, regulators, and the energy consultants they commission possess skills sets dominated by the financial and economic analysis of energy assets and markets, and not in the techniques of social and environment...

Economics of energy efficiency adoption

The discussion so far has illustrated the bumpy route of economic and operational factors that leads to new efficient technologies and stressed the importance of institutional support to create a cycle of continued use with resultant technical improvement and cost reductions. But all of these insights into the process of increasing energy efficiency lead to naught if consumers and firms do not adopt these energy efficient technologies. Of course costs play a pivotal role in the uptake of energy efficiency. Individual efficiency investments have been shown to be induced by rising energy prices (Newell et al., 1999). When analyzing the uptake of energy efficiency innovations, these technologies have historically poor levels of adoption despite the high projected rates of returns. This has been called the Energy Paradox (Jaffe and Stavins, 1993). Explanations have included the additional costs that it poses to organizations to change their method of operation (Cebon, 1992), or that for...

Energy Efficiency Policies

Energy efficiency policies usually consist of instruments of governmental intervention into the energy market. These instruments aim to overcome barriers to investment in EE improvements. Although there are some standard policy measures for governmental intervention in markets, such as taxes, subsidies, laws, regulations and provision of information or provision of services, their application varies according to each sector, taking into account their different characteristics. Table 4.3 gives an overview of further policy-relevant features of energy sectors. Regulatory and social instruments building energy efficiency standards, technical assistance, audits, fiscal incentives for improving thermal efficiency and labelling. Research and development (R& D) in EETs, such as low carbon fuels, advanced solar photo-voltaic technologies, is seen as long-term effort to reduce energy consumption levels. However, energy-related R& D carried out in an organized way by different actors and...

Empowering energy policy

This chapter has sketched some generic challenges confronting attempts to transform energy systems into sustainable forms. A number of features were suggested. The first was the technocratic nature of energy policy it tends to be a backwater political issue except when in trouble, when more diverse actors, including political leaders, enter the fray, each with their own rationales, priorities, and capabilities. Second, the current interest in a transition to sustainable energy systems is confronting energy governance developed with a different purpose in mind. That earlier purpose was the privatisation and liberalisation of a nationalised and highly centralised energy system. Post-privatisation Sustainable energy governance has to rethink and reform these inherited governance arrangements and the energy system. The case of governing the development of renewable energy systems revealed some of the complexities involved in terms of aligning different logics, actors, interests, skills,...

Energy policy in the UK 19452000

Energy policy has had an erratic career. The politics of energy have sometimes been at the top of the national political agenda and at other times virtually disappeared. In the period from 1945 to the early 1950s 'fuel and power' was a dominant policy issue. Coal was the principal fuel, and investment in the mines had been neglected for decades. After nationalisation in 1947 there was a revival of coal production, and low-price oil imports started to flow in the later 1950s and 1960s. By the late 1950s, with fuel and power supplies relatively secure, the issue faded. Meanwhile, first natural gas and then oil began to flow from the North Sea. By the mid-1980s, when oil prices fell back for a 15-year period, energy policy had disappeared again. Nigel Lawson, then Prime Minister Thatcher's Secretary of State for Energy, famously announced the death of energy policy in 1982 (Lawson, 1982). By 1992 the Department of Energy was abolished, with its remit split in two and subsumed into...

Energy Management System and Benchmarking

All the measures for sustainable energy efficiency presented above are integrated in a comprehensive energy management tool. It consists of the following core components Energy loss cascade Analysis of the energy efficiency, with technological, operational and production parameters being assigned to specific energy use to enable energy losses to be precisely pinpointed. Real-Time Energy Efficiency Monitor Monitoring system which enables energy efficiency to be increased through operational intervention. Energy Efficiency Key Performance Indicators (KPI) Quantified energy efficiency indicators that represent efficiency achievements and their temporal development. Energy Efficiency Benchmark Standardization ofthe energy efficiency values and KPIs for the purposes of cross-plant comparability. Sustained Energy Efficiency Improvements Target-setting and sustainable tracking of both energy efficiency and the implementation of measures to increase energy efficiency and reduce climate...

Benefits of Energy Efficiency

Table 5.1 Positive Aspects of Energy Efficiency Table 5.1 Positive Aspects of Energy Efficiency reduced expenditure. In the long run, households enjoy the benefit of lower expenditures on energy, while increasing their comfort and well-being. For commercial and industrial sectors, using energy more efficiently reduces the cost of producing goods and services. This in turn can translate into lower production costs, higher output and more profits in the short term. The lower product price results in increased sales. This means that these sectors employ more workers to satisfy the increased demand for their products. The increased employment, of course, improves the performance of the local economy. The governments can also benefit from energy efficiency improvements as government-owned buildings can use less electricity, oil, gas and water. They can also use less electricity for street lighting. The local transport system that uses petrol and diesel fuel will save significant amounts of...

Energy Efficiency and Clean Energy as New Hitech Markets

Energy efficiency and clean energy may provide an opportunity to participate and create a new market. Patrick Mazza from Climate Solutions, an advocacy group, suggests that 'Clean energy generation and end-use efficiency represent a USD 3.5 trillion market over the coming 20 years, even with no new public priority'.26 There will be plenty of business opportunities in resource efficiency and productivity in the energy, water, agriculture, transportation and forest product industries. Examples of these opportunities include fuel cells, enzyme-based water treatment systems, precision farming technologies and bio-based fuels and speciality chemicals. It is estimated that the combined value of the resource productivity and efficiency market of these industries exceeds USD 60 billion and is growing rapidly.

Technocracy in energy policy A critique

Changing an energy system involves not only technology choices, but also considerations about the legal, regulatory and market framework, infrastructure (such as housing and land use decisions), the factors shaping individual behaviour and prevailing values and norms in society. In principle, a team of experts with sufficiently broad expertise could address these complexities. In practice, the assembled experts are more likely to disagree on actions needed because of their divergent views on both the objectives to be achieved and the means to attain them. In a situation characterised by both scientific uncertainty and controversy objective expert advice along the traditional lines becomes impossible. Under these conditions expert knowledge often cannot tell us what the 'optimal' or the 'best' solution for society is. Nevertheless policy advice tools such as CBA and forecasting are widely used in addressing complex energy policy questions in efforts to provide this sort of absolute...

The Concept of Barriers and Drivers and its Application to Energy Efficiency

The aim of the present chapter is to examine the nature of barriers and drivers to energy efficiency (EE), the circumstances in which they arise, their relative importance in different contexts and the manner in which different actors intervene to overcome these barriers. The chapter reviews current perspectives on barriers and drivers, classifies them according to their influencing patterns and provides supporting evidence for their prevalence. Finally, this chapter develops a new systematic classification and explanation of barriers and drivers to EE. Using an 'actor-oriented approach', the chapter tries to identify (a) the drivers and barriers that affect the success or failure ofenergy efficiency investments, and (b) the institutions that are responsible for the emergence of these barriers and drivers. This taxonomy aims to synthesize ideas from three broad perspectives, namely, micro (project), meso (organization) and macro (state, market and civil society). The chapter develops...

Structural Change The Key To Greater Energy Saving

Different technological investment options are accorded different financial criteria according to the map imposed by the market structure in energy. In very broad terms, this market structure can be thought of as being determined by a wide variety of different factors including of course regulatory frameworks, tariff structures, ownership patterns, price regulation formulae and the structure of energy institutions. These factors in themselves are often influenced by 'softer' institutional and social factors such as historical preference, received wisdom, corporate practice and so on, as well as by less easily quantifiable but nevertheless economically significant factors like the availability of information and expertise. In other words, almost all of those factors which have frequently been identified as market barriers to the implementation of energy efficiency have a bearing on the structure of the energy market, and therefore on the map which allocates specific profitability...

Deliberative energy policymaking for transitions

The socio-technical transitions perspective developed in this chapter emphasises that structural transformation of energy systems will require changes in markets, institutions, policies, technologies, behaviour and culture. Government policies alone cannot bring about such changes, especially not through expert-led, technocratic policymaking processes. Encouraging system-wide changes requires engagement with In conclusion, governments should promote deliberative processes in energy policymaking, notably through visioning exercises, scenario planning and institutionalised learning. CBA and expert-led forecasting and modelling exercises are two among many possible methods to inform policymaking, suited to situations of low uncertainty and high consensus on values and worldviews, when all participants have agreed that such a limited framing is appropriate. Major decision making processes for sustainable energy transitions are typically highly uncertain, and lack a consensus on values....

International Energy Agency IEA

THE council of the Convention on the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development founded the International Energy Agency (IEA) on November 15, 1974. Initial member countries were Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The initial documents allowed for further nations to join the IEA as of 2007, 26 countries are members, from Europe, Asia, North America, and the South Pacific (Australia and New Zealand). Its French name is Agence Internationale de l'Energie. There was an oil crisis 1973-74 in which the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC) refused to ship oil to nations that had supported Israel during the Yom Kippur war. Affected countries included the United States, Japan, and Western European nations. In response to the dependency of these affected countries on Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)...

Evolution Of Paradigms For Analysing Energy Systems

There has been an evolution of the theoretical concepts used for analysing the energy sector of an economy over the last two decades. We put forward the hypothesis that the emerging new understanding of the structure of our energy systems requires a modification of our conception of causal relationships and an adjustment of methodologies. Figure 11.1 Final energy consumption

Energy policy as industrial policy

Despite this high-level endorsement, these arguments appear to carry little weight within some governments. In the UK, the notion that industrial policy and energy policy should be integrated is often dismissed in favour of a laissez faire attitude. Policy documents do not often express a view about the source of low carbon innovations that are to be deployed in the UK. The 2007 Energy White Paper has just a single paragraph about what it calls 'innovation and wealth creation' as a result of reducing carbon emissions (DTI, 2007a, p. 217), but this does not get into specific details about the industries that could be developed. Perhaps this is also related to the notion that government should not get involved in 'picking winners'. Civil servants sometimes complain in private that they would like government to offer more support to particular technologies. But their arguments that new UK-based industries could be established through this support are not taken seriously elsewhere in...

Energy Efficiency and International Environmental

This chapter looks at the relationship between international environmental law and energy efficiency (EE). International environmental law has spoken repeatedly on the concept of EE but typically in the form of general statements in support of domestic efforts to improve efficiency and not in terms of specific goals or enforceable obligations. This is because historically international law has left EE policy to the domestic sphere. Certain provisions of international climate change treaties recently enacted, however, may signal an increased willingness of the international community to delve into EE matters. Notably, the Kyoto Protocol, as implemented by the Marrakech Accords, contains provisions for policies and measures, joint implementation (JI) and the clean development mechanism (CDM) that may indicate an increased willingness on the part of the international community to engage more directly in policy and implementation issues pertaining to EE.

International Efforts on Energy Efficiency

The link between EE and pollution reduction has been discussed repeatedly in international treaties. The reasons for international support of EE are not limited to air pollution reduction. They also include a desire to reduce dependence on foreign oil supplies via using less imported fuels8 and sustainable economic development. The Council of Europe recognized in 1970 that 'improvements of the thermal insulation of buildings, ( ) results in a significant reduction of fuel consumption'.9 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Environmental Guidelines from 1974 added that '( ) establishment of regulations and higher standards for improved thermal insulation of new buildings' was a useful method to increase efficiency.10 In addition, '( ) more efficient use of fuels was useful to reduce air pollution'.11 These views have subsequently been memorialized in the 1988 Sophia Protocol,12 the 1994 Sulphur Protocol13 and the 1999 Gothenburg Protocol14 under which the...

Historical Evolution from Energy Conservation to Energy Efficiency in Refineries

Energy efficiency, on the other hand, may be considered the maturation of energy conservation. It is a more complex and sophisticated concept. Instead of being born during a crisis, it was bred by consolidation and endurance of energy conservation activities. It impels better use of natural resources and, consequently, human and economic development. Through technology and investments, the same processes should use less energy, which means more productivity, less operational costs and environmental impacts. It is a new point of view that must be considered since the conception of the design. Energy efficiency means evolution, doing things right and better in each cycle. This evolution from conservation to efficiency concept was brought about in refineries for many reasons.

Financing Energy Efficiency in Transition Economies

This chapter discusses the linkages between energy efficiency (EE) and the financing mechanism. Now that more financial and institutional resources are available to support EE in transition economies, it is important to channel these resources into profitable investments and indicate to financial institutions that their money is safer and profitable in EE projects. Getting finances in emerging markets means overcoming significant challenges. It requires careful planning, serious investment of time and resources, and simultaneously, aggressiveness and openness to other ways of doing business. For some companies, the costs may be too great. But EE markets also offer growth potential that is unimaginable in the technology-saturated developed economies. Institutions that approach these markets in a realistic, savvy and persistent manner often find that their efforts are more than well rewarded. This chapter is designed to help institutions that are involved in EE to identify and assess...

Energy efficiency and energy services

Micro-generation could act as an important catalyst for demand reduction and consumer behaviour change. One way in which this could be achieved is by changing the way in which energy suppliers interact with citizens. This would build on the current incentives they have to implement energy efficiency measures. There is clear evidence that energy efficiency is the most economic way to reduce energy use (DTI, 2007a), but unlocking this potential can be difficult in practice. In addition to the EU-wide labelling scheme for white goods, the UK government has introduced policy instruments to encourage energy efficiency within households. One of the key policy instruments for encouraging energy efficiency in the UK and addressing emissions from the household sector has been the Energy Efficiency Commitment (EEC) which requires energy suppliers to implement measures to save specified amounts of GHG emissions. This was introduced in 2002 and runs in three three-year phases until 2011. Energy...

Energy efficiency fund for energy demand management

Given the unsatisfactory results of the income tax compensation approach, in the next scenario the revenues of the energy import tax are used to stimulate energy conservation both in households and in companies. We propose that the additional tax revenues are used in a fund for improving energy efficiency. Thus special programmes to improve the energy quality of buildings and equipment could be launched. Our simulations assume that the energy tax revenues are split between households and companies. Estimates have to be made about the potential-energy saving effect and the impact on investment and non-energy consumption. consumed. We therefore assume that the amount of energy costs saved is used for investments in buildings and equipment with households and with companies. Thus the revenues of the energy fund are sufficient to maintain a 15 per cent reduction in energy flows without reducing the related energy services.

Energy Market Conditions

Energy market conditions have a significant impact on the viability of EE projects. Fuel availability and prices and projected energy supply and demand are critical factors affecting the profitability of EE projects. Other factors that have to be taken into consideration include (a) energy policies, legislation and regulations, such as EE efficiency standards, labelling practices and building codes (b) the existence of utility restructuring activities and demand-side management programmes (c) specific EE initiatives, such as tax incentives and (d) environmental regulations, such as limits on emissions of energy-related air pollutants, including nitrous oxides, methane, sulphur dioxide and carbon dioxide.

The Role of Institutions in Promoting Energy Efficiency

Using the example of support for clean energy in countries in transition, this chapter discusses the lessons of experience of institutions in supporting energy-efficient technologies (EETs). The emphasis is on analyzing the performance of organizations, particularly the multilateral institutions (MIs) in promoting EETs. A key conclusion from the analysis is that although there may be some technical blueprints that MIs can apply to all countries, there are no blueprints for the design of projects. What works in one country does not necessarily work in another. Therefore, each project needs to be developed anew with reference to the implementing institutions and the framework conditions in a particular country.

Improvements in energy efficiency

Several of the global models (see the review in Dean and Hoeller 1992 26-7) employ a parameter called AEEI (autonomous energy efficiency improvement) to capture a perceived economic tendency to move towards greater energy efficiency independently of relative price changes (i.e. of substitution effects, which Manne and Richels (1991), for example, model through a separate parameter, ESUB, the elasticity of price-induced substitution). Whether or not investment and improvements in energy efficiency will accelerate with a carbon tax, many analysts have argued that market failures are preventing the implementation of some cost-efficient energy conservation measures now (e.g. Jackson and Jacobs 1991, Lovins and Lovins 1991 Chapter 10 in this volume). After reviewing this issue, Cline (1992 227) decides that a reasonable estimate is that the first 22 per cent of carbon emissions from base can be cut back at zero cost. The incorporation of such costless cuts in the cost-generating models...

Appraising energy systems

The traditional mainstream perspective on energy systems has been one in which various technologies offer energy at a range of 'levelised costs'. This approach is based on a narrow engineering perspective, focusing on the specific technology in isolation from the broader system. The increasing involvement of private capital in electricity investments has drawn attention to the deficiencies of this perspective. Large investors are interested not only in unit costs, but also in the financial risks associated with using specific technologies within portfolios of different energy investments. Capital cost increases, fuel price volatility and 'regulatory risk' must all be taken into account. Low cost but high risk options can be balanced in a portfolio with low risk options, resulting in lower overall generating costs across the portfolio. This perspective has much to recommend it as a starting point for system level appraisal of energy options. Within evolving portfolios of energy...

Road to a Sustainable Future A Systematic Understanding of Energy Efficiency and Climate Change

Human beings influence the climate through many activities. Though technological solutions exist, inefficient practices adapted by social, economic, informational and institutional actions hinder their penetration. We also believe that policies do have the required leverage to influence the energy path and a significant reduction of energy consumption levels can be achieved if such policies are promoted. Active intervention in markets and private capital mobilization are critical complements to policies. For students, policy makers, researchers, practitioners and all those who have interest in a sustainable future, a roadmap, based on energy efficiency, has been outlined here to attain sustainable development. A broad, in-depth and systematic understanding is attempted keeping the approaches simple, fundamental and promising. Although the reader is challenged to create a new knowledge by critically adapting his her own experiences to the relatively complex contents of previous...

Energy policy in context

Energy policy is inevitably embedded in wider politics, and is often ill defined or implicit. It has unstable and permeable boundaries, shaping and being shaped by fiscal policy, foreign policy and other government concerns. Considerations of inflation, employment, the balance of payments, regional development, technological innovation and poverty alleviation have all figured in governments' formal or informal energy policies at different times and to different degrees. Currently, however, the 'energy triangle' (of supply security, market liberalisation and environmental protection) presents the central challenges for policymakers in the industrialised world. Energy policy embraces diverse objectives and instruments and the mix changes over time. In the second half of the twentieth century, industrialised countries shifted from the public provision of adequate supply to a greater emphasis on competition, market forces and private initiatives. Before the late 1980s energy policy was...

Externalities as Benefits and Drawbacks of Energy Efficiency

This section illustrates the large number of externalities in energy efficiency, since EE provides external benefits or imposed external costs in addition to financial outcome and energy production. As suggested in Table 5.9, the positive externalities are substantial. Table 5.9 Externalities of Energy Efficiency Energy efficiency (v) Lower investments in transmission and distribution (T& D) through energy savings and power stations located closer to customer loads. Externalities common to both RE and EE Energy efficiency (i) Pollution and waste produced by the production, distribution, and maintenance of renewable energy and energy efficiency equipment. Energy efficiency can also have negative externalities.39 EE is often promoted based on the assumption that the positive externalities outweigh the negative ones. Sometimes positive externalities can outweigh the lack of financial viability (in addition to any negative externalities). It makes little sense to classify externalities...

Funding energy efficiency earmarked environmental taxes versus system public benefit charges

Energy efficiency can improve energy security, reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, promote economic growth and create jobs. However, market failures and other barriers have caused a pattern of underinvestment in energy efficiency, forcing governments to undertake policy interventions. Funding for these policy interventions may come from several sources, including government budgets, earmarked environmental taxes, and charges on network-delivered energy (gas and electricity). Classical economic theory holds that the government appropriations process is the most efficient way to allocate public funds among competing policy priorities. For this and other reasons the earmarking of environmental taxes to fund energy efficiency has received criticism from economists. In contrast, a different kind of earmarking, namely the funding of energy efficiency with network-delivered energy charges (sometimes called system public benefit charges or wires and pipes charges), has received a more...

Increasing Energy Efficiency and CO2 Mitigation in Buildings

Due to slow building turnover, increasing the energy efficiency of existing building stock and maximizing energy efficiency of new buildings is essential in reducing total building energy use. This includes a concerted effort both in building systems, design and in selection replacement of mechanical systems and appliances. The process is most efficient when comparing all building system components against each other, as commonly done in a building energy audit. Example tools for determining a building's energy use and potential energy savings can be found on the Department of Energy web page 23 . To be truly effective, an integrated design approach is needed both during initial building construction and retrofitting to determine the most effective method of maximizing individual building efficiency. For example, a relatively simple aspect such as building siting (based on reference angle with the sun instead of the road) can greatly affect the available natural lighting and building...

Energy Consumption and CO2 Emissions in General

Energy consumption increases with economic development in most countries. From 1990 to 2006 the total primary energy consumption rose from 370 to 500 Exajoule (EJ, 1EJ 1018J) or 35 14 , as shown in Figure 5. The energy consumption (500 EJ in 2006) has been satisfied by a relatively stable mix of energy sources since 1990. Fossil fuels like petroleum, coal and natural gas and electricity from nuclear and hydropower are the main energy sources. Other renewable energy sources, here named as 'others' in the graphic, still only play a Figure 5 Primary energy consumption by region (data from 14 ). 600- - Figure 5 Primary energy consumption by region (data from 14 ). 600- - Figure 6 Primary energy consumption by fuel (data from 14 ). Figure 6 Primary energy consumption by fuel (data from 14 ). The emission of GHG, expressed as C02e, is of course closely connected to the energy consumption and the mix of energy sources. Since renewable energy sources still are small on a global scale, the GHG...

Renewable energy Policy Project Repp

Founded in 1995, the Renewable Energy Policy Project (REPP) is based in Washington, D.C. The organization researches strategies to make renewable sources competitive in energy markets and to stabilize carbon emissions. REPP supports reindus-trialization through the use of renewable technologies. It demonstrates that solar, wind, biomass, and other renewable sources can provide energy services at or below the cost of nonrenewables when structural barriers are removed. REPP works directly with states and firms to help them develop their renewable portfolio. The organization also provides expert information to consumers to improve energy efficiency and guide their transition to alternative energy options. To promote sales of renewable energy products and services, REPP created a buyer's guide and consumer directory for approximately 5,000 businesses. REPP has linked social and economic development to ecological concerns. The staff argues that renewables take advantage of resources, such...

Drawbacks of Energy Efficiency

While the benefits seem sufficient to justify investment in energy efficiency, individuals typically do not use societal criteria when making personal Public money funds many governmental EE projects. The justification for this is to encourage people to invest in energy efficiency. These programmes Reduces local air pollution resulting from lower energy consumption. Lowers C02 emissions associated with lower energy consumption. Energy efficiency allow the governments to invest in EETs and the markets to offer rebates and other incentives to increase the number of purchases of cost-effective measures. Subsidizing new energy efficiency measures will help them to gain market acceptance and will thus facilitate market transformation. The general perception is that, without subsidies, there is little customer investment in cost-effective energy efficiency. However, this type of incentive approach has drawbacks. Incentive programmes do not eliminate the underlying market barriers for most...

Energy efficiency vs energy intensity

It is easy to confuse energy efficiency and energy intensity. Energy efficiency as we describe it above is a bottom-up view applied to individual activities. We describe energy intensity as a top-down or aggregated look at energy use in an economy. For consistency and clarity, the rest of this chapter will use the term efficiency for specific activities and intensity for aggregated energy use. However, the relationship between the two is far more complex and controversial than a simple aggregation. One measure in common usage to define energy intensity is primary energy supply divided by GDP (E GDP). For most OECD countries, this is between 7 and 14 mega-joules per US dollar (MJ US ) with the US and Sweden in the upper part of this range and Japan in the lower range (Azar and Dowlatabadi, 1998). However, energy intensity is not simply the inverse of energy efficiency. Energy intensity is also affected by a nation's climate, heating and cooling requirements, amount of indoor space,...

Energy Efficiency Conclusion

Certainly there are several reasons, a number of pros and cons to improve energy efficiency. Theoretically, with the magic formula ceteris paribus, the pros prevail and the experience from developed countries confirms this in practice as well. Transition economies have a chance to either improve or introduce energy efficiency, and despite the fact that the obstacles and negatives exist, EE has a great potential, which should be utilized. Whilst an increase in energy efficiency investment can generate economic and business opportunities, it cannot be done unless there is an effective institutional mechanism to provide financing as well as technological inputs. The chapter provides a broad picture of the benefits and drawbacks of energy efficiency investment programmes. This is an opportunity for energy efficiency policy makers to study and work together with those responsible for areas, such as economic regeneration and local sustainable development to combine funding for projects that...

Energy Consumption and CO2 Emissions in the Chemical Industry

The chemical process industry is an energy intensive industry. The ICCA study 12 shows that the fuel consumption linked to the chemical industry amounts to 9 Exajoule in 2005. Here the fuel consumption for energy generation is considered, but not petroleum, coal or natural gas used as raw materials. The global energy consumption in 2005 was about 485 EJ (see Figure 5 in Section 3.1), that means the chemical industry consumes about 1.9 of the total global energy. On a global scale natural gas as the main energy source is also the main source of CO2 emissions. Because of the higher hydrogen content of natural gas in comparison to coal and petroleum the fraction is lower than for the energy consumption (47 of the total CO2 emission instead of 58 of the total energy consumption). By the analysis of data from the perspective of regions it follows that countries with a higher fraction of energy generation from natural gas contribute specifically less to C02 emissions than countries which...

Energy Efficiency Improvements

Although energy intensity has declined in the United States over the past 30 years (EIA, 2009 NRC, 2009d), per capita consumption in the United States still exceeds that of almost all other developed countries. In addition, a considerable fraction of the intensity improvements in the United States may be due to the changing nature of demand (e.g., the shift away from manufacturing toward a service- and information-based economy) as well as increased imports of energy-intensive products and materials, which simply shift emissions to other locations. The recent report Real Prospects for Energy Efficiency in the United States (NRC, 2009c), part of the America's Energy Future suite of activities, carried out a comprehensive review of methods to improve energy efficiency in industry, buildings, and transportation sectors. The report concludes that energy efficient technologies in those sectors exist today that could be implemented without major changes in lifestyles and could reduce energy...

The Benefits and Drawbacks of Energy Efficiency

The aim of this chapter is to discuss the methods of assessing the advantages and drawbacks of energy-efficient technologies (EET) as well as projects. It is a proven fact that in specific situations and well-chosen energy efficiency (EE) proposals, benefits significantly outweigh drawbacks. However, it is important to mention the perceived and actual disadvantages and complications. In the present chapter, both these aspects are discussed from the perspective of the governments, businesses establishments and households. As the scope of investigation is a global one and the resulting drawbacks as well as benefits emerge out of a specific situation, this chapter should be understood as giving directions of thought rather than empirical evidence. The purpose of this chapter is to help the reader decide which EE programmes would give positive effects, and which would not, based on which he can learn to discriminate between alternative EE proposals.

Energy Efficiency in the Chemical Industry

Energy efficiency has become one ofthe key topics not only in the chemical industry. There are three main reasons for that development 1) As mentioned in the last section energy prices rose significantly during the last ten years. In parallel with the energy prices the energy costs increased as a percentage of the production costs. Therefore there was and there is a high pressure on the industry, and especially the energy-intensive chemical industry, to work on the reduction of the specific energy consumption. 2) Secondly climate change became an ever more important issue in public discussion. The targets given by politics and public and the self-commitments of the industry led to an increased level of attention to energy efficiency and by this to additional efforts in the chemical process industry. To quantify energy efficiency we follow the CEFIC , the European Chemical Industry Council, which defines energy intensity as the energy input per unit of chemicals production 16 . Since...

Carbonless Transportation and Energy Storage in Future Energy Systems

By 2050 world population is projected to stabilize near ten billion. Global economic development will outpace this growth, achieving present European per capita living standards by quintupling the size of the global economy - and increasing energy use, especially electricity, substantially. Even with aggressive efficiency improvements, global electricity use will at least triple to 30 trillion kWh yr in 2050. Direct use of fuels, with greater potential for efficiency improvement, may be held to 80 trillion kWh (289 EJ) annually, 50 above present levels (IPCC, 1996). Sustaining energy use at these or higher rates, while simultaneously stabilizing atmospheric greenhouse gas levels, will require massive deployment of carbon-conscious energy systems for electricity generation and transportation by the mid 21st century. These systems will either involve a shift to non-fossil primary energy sources (such as solar, wind, biomass, nuclear, and hydroelectric) or continue to rely on fossil...

The Energy Efficiency Debate

There has been a long running debate between energy economists and energy analysts about various aspects of energy efficiency. One aspect is the rebound effect. Although definitions vary, this effect describes the following linkage the efficient use of energy leads to an increase in the use of energy. This may offset the savings in energy use achieved by the EE improvement partly.6 The theory of the rebound effect is rooted in the neoclassical It is suggested that in practice the rebound effect is not high enough to subtract the potential contributions of EE to the reduction of carbon emissions or the justification of EE policies.8 Nonetheless, some implications for policy follow from this. Energy-efficient technologies (EETs) may need to be reinforced by market instruments. A continued measurement and explaining effort should be put on to the rebound effect as economies are complex and changing.9 Henry Saunders argues that '( ) energy efficiency gains can increase energy consumption...

The high energy efficiency paradigm

The 1980s saw the emergence of a new energy perspective, which may be termed a paradigm of high energy efficiency, as part of the process of sustainable economic development recommended by the report Our Common Future of the World Commission for Environment and Development (1987). This innovative concept of economic development requires that current economic actions must not impair the economic options of future generations, and therefore energy systems must be redesigned to reduce the use of exhaustible energy resources and limit emissions. An obvious consequence for energy policy is the need to move towards high energy efficiency. This in turn requires changes in economic incentives, particularly in the price system.

World Energy Consumption

Before considering each energy source in detail it is useful to compare their contributions to world energy consumption. This serves to keep their relative importance in perspective. Figures 1.3 and 1.4 and Table 1.1 provide some figures for past consumption and estimates for the future. The four main producers are coal, oil, natural gas and nuclear, with smaller contributions from other sources. Hydro is the next in importance but as it is limited by the number of suitable rivers its contribution remains almost constant and its relative contribution decreases. The contribution of the remaining sources is rather small. The 'traditional' renewable energy sources such as wood, straw and dung (biomass) amounted to 0.9 GTOE in 1990. Modern biomass is growing special crops such as willow for subsequent burning. World energy consumption increased by 4.3 in 2004, with some countries increasing faster than others. Thus Chinese consumption increased by 15 in one year (Nuclear Issues, June...

EU energy policy

Today's EU was founded on energy but over its history it has, on more than one occasion, foundered on energy as well. The original European Coal and Steel Community (1951-2002) was an attempt to overcome differences over how these key resources were to be managed, while the Euratom Treaty (on nuclear power, signed in 1957) sought to harness a cooperative approach to the management of what was seen to be the fuel of the future. As it turned out, neither was particularly successful, and it was instead the more mundane principle of a common market that was to be the main driver of European integration. Indeed, energy was to prove a difficult issue upon which to agree a common European policy. From the 1950s attempts to formulate a common energy policy resulted in very little of substance, and even the 1970s energy crises failed to trigger closer cooperation. On the contrary it largely exposed the differences between states. Beyond some rather general objectives and some funding, mainly...

Energy Efficiency

Many proposed strategies to limit the magnitude of future climate change focus on increasing energy efficiency, especially in the near term. A substantial body of research backs up the technical potential for large energy efficiency improvements. For example, the recent report Real Prospects for Energy Efficiency in the United States (NRC, 2009c) included a comprehensive review of information on the performance, costs, and GHG emissions reducing potential of different energy efficient technologies and processes for residential and commercial buildings, industry, and transportation.

Energy Consumption

Globally, total energy consumption grew from 4,675 to 8,286 million tons of oil equivalent between 1973 and 2007 (IEA, 2009). The United States is still the world's largest consumer of energy, responsible for 20 percent of world primary energy consumption. The next largest user, China, currently accounts for about 15 percent. Energy consumption in the United States has increased by about 1 percent per year since 1970, although there is no longer a direct relationship between energy use and economic growth. Between 1973 and 2008, for example, U.S. energy intensity, measured as the amount of energy used per dollar of gross domestic product (GDP), fell by half, or 2.1 percent per year (EIA, 2009). Despite this trend, the United States still has higher energy use per unit of GDP and per capita than almost all other developed nations. For example, Denmark's per capita energy use is about half that of the United States (NRC, 2009c). A nation's energy intensity reflects population and...

Energy Economy and the Environment

Understanding energy demand and how efficiently energy is used is of interest for policy makers as both aspects influence economic development, environment and sustainability. Throughout history and across the globe, energy utilization has followed a highly uneven process and has demonstrated dramatic variations in energy sources, use and growth rates. For example, in 2000, an average member of the American economy used hundred times more energy than his counterpart in Bangladesh. While in some countries, the per capita energy consumption is increasing rapidly, in others it has shown a decrease.1 In developing countries, fuel wood stoves can be found alongside nuclear reactors. Likewise, space vehicles coexist with bullock carts. Faced with these challenges of climate change, economic development and sustainability, the future of energy and environmental policies have been a hot topic among policy makers and academics. Debates continue on the best energy source, with considerations of...

Hans Joachim Leimkhler Climate Change

There are two main reasons why the chemical process industry should be motivated to reduce energy consumption and CO2 emissions rising concerns in companies, the public and scientific community about climate change or global warming, and the increasing fraction of energy in manufacturing costs. 2) On the other hand, the chemical process industry delivers materials and products (like insulation materials, fuel additives and many more) that help to enhance the energy efficiency in many different fields and thereby reduces the emission of C02. For this reason, the chemical process industry is also part of the solution. Nevertheless it is the goal of the chemical industry to further reduce the specific emissions of GHG per ton of product. A study by McKinsey ( 13 , cited in 12 ) leads to the result that the 2.1 Gt CO2e emissions linked to the chemical production in 2005 can be nearly equally assigned to direct energy emissions (fuel consumption required by the process to run, 0.6 Gt...

Powering the World Economy

By the year 2030, it is predicted that energy consumption will increase by 52 per cent compared to energy demand in 2006 under a business as usual scenario.10 The Asian region will account for almost 40 per cent of that growth. Energy consumption in developing countries, particularly in China and India, has increased significantly in recent years. The share of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) nations in world energy demand is expected to fall from 56 per cent in 2006 to 47 per cent in 2030, while that of the Asian region, excluding Japan, will rise from 26 to 27 per cent (Figure 1.1). While the reliance on natural gas was desirable from an environmental perspective in the short term, after the fall of the Soviet era, it raised concerns of national sovereignty in several CEE countries and in the former Soviet republics. Since diversifying the import sources of natural gas is burdensome due to the costly and time-consuming pipeline construction, fuel...

The Geopolitics of Energy

In the new millennium, new realities affecting the energy industry are constantly emerging not only because of events in the Middle East but also because of the environmental impacts of energy consumption and concerns about global sustainability. A strong interaction exists among energy, economics, technology, geopolitics and sustainability. The challenge for policy makers is to secure the long-term energy future without destroying the environmental systems that support the human race. The challenges of energy security and sustainability are daunting and require a paradigm shift to reduce energy consumption levels. This calls

Political Framework and Trends

There are approaches to use the per capita values as target for future CO2 emissions. The German Chancellor Merkel presupposed that the industrialized countries cut their share of energy consumption as far as possible, thus reducing per capita emissions of CO2 . The emerging economies, on the other hand, need to grow if they are to reduce poverty. The downside is, of course, that their emissions

Energy and globalisation of the economy

The search for lowest-cost production sites has accelerated the development of goods transport and led to a sharp rise in energy consumption by emerging countries. Opening the gas and electricity networks to third parties represents another means of increasing competition. The networks are managed independently of the energy suppliers which use them at the same time. In Europe, the internal energy market must now be open and competitive. This involves separating the transport networks from the production means, under the control of the national regulation authorities. In this globalised economy, investments and the decision processes depend more and more on the international groups in the energy sector, at least during the energy conversion and supply stages. In addition, since the energy policies within the European Union are becoming increasingly integrated, fewer decisions can be made at a purely national level.

Carbon FootprintsA Few Examples

The fight against global warming will finally always have to end up in reducing GHG emissions. This can be partly achieved by measures at the source of the emissions (direct emissions), for example, by increasing efficiencies of fossil-fired power plants to reduce the amount of CO2 emitted per unit of electrical power produced. Another lever is to influence the demand side that causes indirect emissions, for example, by applying more energy efficient devices, by avoiding or dispensing energy consuming activities. The goal of a CO2 balance is to illustrate and quantify the overall impact of a certain activity or action.

Data Retrieval and Data Sources

A PCF is a summation of the individual contributions from its production chain or its total life cycle. We can distinguish between data from publicly available sources (secondary sources), from approximations and analogies, and from detailed calculations of the specific situation (primary sources). The method must be chosen according to the scope and the relevance of the contribution. If we consider a footprint for a chemical intermediate with intensive energy consumption supplied by an on-site power plant, it can make sense to model the specific power plant in detail to calculate the carbon footprint of the respective energies. However, if the energy consumption is of minor relevance it is appropriate to use a value delivered by the energy supplier or a region specific value for electrical power from the grid.

Greater vulnerability of consumer countries

In Asia, Japan is totally dependent on imports for its consumption of oil and natural gas, supplied as LNG. China's spectacular economic growth is creating increasing tension on the energy markets, as growth in Chinese demand has created a surge in imports. The dependencies of China and India are tending to increase as their economies improve these two countries deploy the infrastructures and investments designed to favour energy supplies, primarily oil. In addition, China relies heavily on its coal reserves, which has serious implications for the environment. These constraints could encourage this country to further diversify its energy sources, placing more emphasis on natural gas in particular.

Feedstock Extraction Transportation and Preparation

In addition to the increased energy costs driven by the power sector, the preparation of feedstock used for chemical production is also energy intensive which results in a high level of direct emissions associated with the refinery cracking process. Approximately 4 of the world's oil and equivalent fossil fuels are used as feedstock for plastics and chemicals 19 . It is also important to consider the feedstock route and whether they are derived from gas, oil, ethane, coal, or biomass. When examining the energy consumption

Chemical Projects by Country

No change to process and related to emissions due to energy consumption No biomass crowding out Energy savings resulting from project activities that reduce caustic soda that would be purchased from in country production or imported from facilities located in Non-Annex 1 countries

International Offsetting in a Post2012 Context

While the CDM and JI have offered an initial pathway for companies to invest in low carbon technologies, there are key limitations of the mechanisms which prevent the wide ) spread deployment of technology based solutions that reduce energy consumption and GHG emissions. These drawbacks are primarily attributed to the ' project)based' nature of the existing offset mechanisms, making it difficult to demonstrate additionality and select the appropriate baseline scenario, particularly for highly integrated industries such as the chemical process industry.

Scaling up the CDM via Benchmarking

Benchmark based additionality is already proposed in certain sectors such as the cement industry and would enable substantial advantages to the chemical industry to unlock a range of energy efficiency initiatives at one facility without assessing the business -as-usual scenario of each stand-alone activity. Proposals that include the expansion of the CDM through benchmarks are largely accepted by NGOs and governments because of their transparent design but are being met by some degree of resistance from developing countries who feel that it lays out the groundwork of an emission reduction target that could burden their economy. Other issues surround data availability where developing countries do not always feel comfortable with releasing industry performance data.

Rational Economic Theory

In using this model, the structure of energy pricing, whether it is electricity itself or devices which need energy, have to be altered to benefit the individual financially. For example, there has been publicity that energy saving light bulbs cost more in purchase than the old fashioned incandescent light bulbs but over time save tremendously on energy and therefore on spending as well. However, and this is the main point of criticism towards the rational-economic theory, many studies have shown (e.g., - 12 ) that people do not solely decide and behave on their financial interest. Situational factors and or personal interests such as comfort and luxury (e.g., slow reaction times of the new energy saving light bulbs) but also convenience or resistance to change, habits or behavior pattern, often outweigh logical rationalizations that are motivated by monetary cost - 13 . Results show that the rational-economic theory and measures, which follow this approach, often do not succeed in...

Theories About Feedback

With regard to sustainable behavior or energy use, feedback interventions provide information about resource use or abuse with the inherent chance to become aware of the problem as well as the encouragement to act as desired. Literature shows convincing confirmation for the effectiveness of feedback measures to promote environmental sustainable behavior. Studies, which compared daily energy consumption of households with and without feedback, found energy savings up to 20 (e.g., 29-31 ). In most cases, technical devices such as displays are used for feedback because they provide the relevant information (e.g., energy consumption in kilowatt or per hour) directly and on time. This creates the chance to almost automatically modify behavior and change energy use patterns. However, interpersonal communication with oral praise or critical reactions of superiors, coworkers, customers or friends is equally suited as feedback to change behavior.

Planning Organizing and Preparing the Program

Before an energy awareness program can be planned, organized and implemented, it is necessary to have a concrete assignment for it. The general ultimate goal, to reduce the amount of energy consumption through the implementation of an energy awareness program, has to be clear as well as who is responsible and carries out the project. What department is in charge, is it a team or single person effort Who leads, to whom will the process be reported and how does the decision process work Are responsibilities within the planning committee of the project shared and if so how Many answers to the above questions depend on the size of the organization and the scale of the program.

Methods Measures and Goals

The assessment of the energy use and possible energy saving opportunities will be broadened within the phase of implementation. All employee levels will be included into the pursuit to reduce energy consumption because everyone can and should actively contribute to create an awareness culture and sustainable organization. Information events, participative workshops, and discussions will be carried out with the goal first, to inform and create awareness about and commitment to the subject and second, to gain as much relevant information and ideas as possible. Further, goal-setting combined with feedback will be applied through systematic goal. setting talks as well as technical and interpersonal feedback mechanisms. Additionally, behavioral training on machines and for the accomplishment of processes will be available if necessary. Award programs will lead to recognition and honors as well as create some level of competition and finalize the implementation methods.

Team and Resources Budget

First, the energy awareness planning committee has to be enlarged because tasks such as marketing, writing and editing, graphic designing, producing informational materials, workshop and training sessions as well as the program evaluation need additional and expert personnel. The new project members should have participated in the energy audit or have to be informed and motivated at this point. Furthermore, it might be beneficial to decide to use the services of outside consultants, contractors or scientific societies such as universities with research interests, but a core group of enthusiastic on-site people is essential for an effective program. Generally, the entire team has to serve as contacts for any information regarding the energy awareness program and should also act as behavior models practicing energy efficiency. Energy sustainable behavior has to be lived authentically and vividly presented through various communication channels.

Information Materials and Events

Information events can include general information about the climate change, energy conservation, possible chances and advantages but also specifics of the pre-analyses of the plant's energy management (e.g., current energy use, potential savings, measures, advantages, and efforts), the energy matrix, benchmarks, and ideas as well as decisions of the management. The business case for energy efficiency is clear it reduces energy costs, diminishes vulnerability to increasing energy prices and reduces CO2 emissions. It is equally effective to invite an external expert or celebrity to present climate change and energy issues. The participation and active support of the upper top management also shows the significance of the program.

Participative Workshops and Specific Techniques

Workshops for energy conservation are very efficient in raising awareness, increasing knowledge, and building strong intentions to implement energy saving measure (see also -41 - . They should be moderated through well-trained energy awareness planning committee members, who promote the project, answer questions, and make sure that every participant is being involved and contributes. Again, it is vital that all employees are enabled to give input about energy conservation so that all possibilities of reducing the use are regarded and their support is gained. Therefore the size of individual workshops should not exceed 20 persons and contain employees from same departments, productions lines and backgrounds. Homogeneous groups have the advantage that for example, machines, processes, and the language are somewhat similar, simplifying communication and discussion. Heterogeneous groups have the advantage that its members might have new and totally different thoughts and ideas about...

Public Policy Institutions

Public policy shaping institutions influence the EET market indirectly through taxes and subsidies. Taxes have a negative influence and subsidies a positive influence. Policy makers as actors of energy consumption work alongside those who frame policies pertaining to economics, technology and social welfare. The role of policy makers is to address the most pressing technology challenges facing the nation, including enhancing the efficiency of energy use. Sound energy policy requires more than a political balancing of popular interests. Because of the technological complexity of the national energy system, policy must also be consistent with technical and economic analyses.

Feedback Instruments and Talks

Feedback raises awareness, motivates high performance 28 and positively effects performance achievement 27 . Environmental sustainability studies in households show energy savings up to 20 , when feedback was provided (e.g., 29-31 ). It also enhances the effectiveness of goal-setting because progress can be controlled and the final achievement realized and celebrated. Also in households, Becker 34 found that difficult goals with feedback three times a week about how much energy was consumed, was the only measure to reduce energy use significantly (15.1 ). Easy goals and difficult goals without feedback did not lead to relevant energy conservation. Therefore technical as well as interpersonal feedback instruments and mechanisms need to be integrated into awareness and change processes as well as goal setting. Between 2002 and 2004 the Deutsche Bahn AG carried out the project - EnergieSparen- with the aim of reducing the amount of energy use and CO -emission of passenger trains -46 -...

Energy SavingAward Programs

With this procedure, gratitude is provided and desirable examples are given to colleagues and co- workers, motivating them to engage in the same or similar behavior (copying effect) or even compete to get the honors themselves. The award should focus on public appreciation and tribute, if at all combined with a small prize. Stern 53 as well as Katzev and Johnsons 54 report that small or weak incentives are often more successful than large or strong ones in inducing increased energy efficiency because the first tend to suggest that the behavior is internally, rather than externally, motivated, which results in a greater commitment to act. A smaller prize enables the copying of desired behavior more by choice than by the pull of a greater incentive.

Acting from a perspective of sustainable development

It seems difficult to deny the developing countries the right to better welfare, which cannot be obtained without energy consumption. It is nevertheless possible to conceive new ways of living offering better welfare and quality of life, while moderating energy consumption.

Main Energy Consumers

In the last section it was mentioned that the consultant will try to concentrate on the relevant utilities. Equally it is necessary to identify the main energy consumers and find measures to reduce the energy consumption of this equipment. There are different ways to find energy intensive equipment 2) If measurements are not available, a thermodynamic simulation of the process (see Section 4.3.5) will quantify the energy consumption of each piece of equipment. The simulation of the process needs some effort, but it gives valuable additional information to be used during the idea generation phase (see Section 4.4). In many cases a thermodynamic model of the plant is available and can be used after actualization. 4) The last information source is the design specification of the plant. The expected energy consumption is normally part of this documentation. The energy consumption of the plant is then depicted in a graph similar to that shown in Figure 4.6 ) Here the consumption of 31 bar...

Role of Actors Needs and Priorities

While implementing EE programmes, one has to take human behaviour into consideration. Although there are technologically feasible and economically meaningful potentials for reducing energy consumption levels, the number of measures that is implemented is very small. This is due to the 'implementation gap' which means relating existing potentials to real world implementation. Barriers for the implementation of these measures are not only the political and economical setting, such as for instance the externalization of environmental costs, but also the behaviour of actors and decision makers. Actually, the implementation of energy efficiency measures can be considered as an ongoing social process involving the interaction of different actors inside and outside organizations. The process comprises different stages an initial stage of motivation or willingness to act, several steps of problem solving and a final stage, where continuation is possible on the basis of the experiences made by...

Operational Improvements and Process Control

The best tool for the improvement of these parameters is the analysis of a process model (see Section 4.3.5). It is not so laborious to optimize the parameters in a model by a sensitivity analysis in comparison with plant or lab experiments. An experienced engineer is able to find improvement ideas (not only for energy savings) performing numerical experiments in the model and assessing the results. An example We modeled a complete polymerization process with reaction and processing. The reactor was cooled by boiling off the reaction mixture, and the gas stream from the reactor was condensed and recycled to the reactor. Our model showed a high concentration of by-products in the loop and in the reactor, until then unknown to the plant staff. This by- product came into the plant with one of the monomers. With the help of the model we could find out the optimal localization of a purge stream and its recommended size. The existing purge was modified according to our suggestion. As a...

Buildings and Facilities

Heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) of buildings can have a high impact on the total energy consumption of a plant. Especially for pharmaceutical plants with their high requirements for ventilation, air conditioning and air change rates the HVAC experts play an important role in an energy saving project. During the analysis phase we normally send out data sheets to the plant manager where all ventilation systems will be recorded by the plant. This list will be completed and evaluated during the site visit of the HVAC expert. The energy consumption of the buildings is analyzed and then compared with known benchmarks, expressed for instance as a building footprint in kg CO2e per sqm net floor area. Here local weather conditions taken from databases like Meteonorm (http www. or from ASHRAE (www. ashrae.org) must be considered for the benchmarking process. Another important issue is the air change in pharmaceutical plants. Here the discussion between the energy consultant and...

Energy and Utility Systems

An energy saving project is incomplete if it does not consider the energy and utility generation and distribution. In our workflow we regard the generation and distribution of the following utilities An example A customer wanted to increase the capacity of a plant, which was provided by its own power house. The proportional calculation of the energy demand with the capacity led to the investment in an additional gas turbine. We performed an energy efficiency project in parallel to the de-bottienecking project. The result was that the plant with extended capacity could be provided with steam and electricity by the existing turbines. We had to design some modifications in the power house, but the savings in comparison with a new turbine were enormous.

Making the transition

It is therefore necessary and urgent to speed up the transition movement with respect to the trend currently accepted by most observers. In addition, changing only the structure of the primary energy supply (also known as the 'energy mix') will not be sufficient to ensure a satisfactory transition. It must be combined with other means, described below, such as improved energy efficiency and geological storage of CO2.

Reporting and Target Setting

A common definition and a common measurement of the energy consumption in a company open up the opportunity of consolidating the gathered energy information within the company from the plant level up to company level. That can be used in two directions Firstly for reporting we recommend energy consumption reporting for all operational units of the company. This means that all hierarchy levels are provided with given consumption information for their units. The plant manager will get Energy Efficiency Diagnostics the numbers for his plant, the site manager for the whole site, the business unit head for his business unit and the CEO finally receives a consumption report for the operations unit of the company. This reporting is available on a daily, weekly and monthly basis. It is possible to provide absolute and specific energy consumption data. Secondly, for the purpose of target setting the reporting tool provides unbiased data about the energy consumption in all units of the company,...

Situation before the B ayer C limate C heck

In the last 20 years Bayer, like other chemical companies, has shown a strong commitment to reduce the GHG emissions of its production facilities. As a result, between 1990 and 2007 the company managed to reduce its direct and indirect GHG emissions by 37.2 or 4.5 million tons of CO2 equivalents. The total energy consumption of the Bayer group in 2007 equaled 91.7 Petajoule (that means 25.5 Terawatthours).

Governmental Perspective

This perspective looks at the net costs of the EE project as a resource option based on the total costs to the government and the customer. Energy efficiency issues that also need to be looked at from the government perspective include national development goals, social equity, national priorities, self-reliance, energy security, policy making as well as institution forming. Energy inefficiency plagues almost all of the developing countries that face energy shortages. The process of reforms that are taking place in many developing countries emphasizes appropriate pricing and efficiency in the use of resources, including energy resources. Programmes to promote energy efficiency and incentives to adopt efficiency improving measures play an important role. A significant benefit from improved energy efficiency is the reduction in GHG emissions and a well practiced concept to facilitate parts of the Kyoto Protocol (1997) and further governmental agreements concerning environmental issues.2...

Business Perspectives

It took a long time for the business community to come to terms with energy efficiency. John B. Robinson argues that the relative novelty of the energy efficiency field together with its technical nature and the invisibility of energy caused a lack of good information on EETs, their potentials and costs.7 There are also other issues pertaining to the attitudes. They include the lack of recognition of non-market needs of consumers, and the focus of the private sector on environmental remediation rather than pollution prevention. Leaving aside that business goals and the measurement of their successes are complex and a matter of debate, it can be safely assumed that business establishments are profit-seeking organizations. Therefore, unless industrial firms consider resource depletion and environmental degradation, in terms of economic and management concepts, such as customer demand for green products, they are not likely to integrate environmental aspects into their decision making...

Sustainable Chemical Process Design

Economic and industrial activities are continuously increasing, which means that energy consumption, depletion of raw materials and the environmental impact are also growing in their importance to modern society. One of the major concerns, related to the environmental issues, is the increase in CO2 emissions. The substantial increase of CO2 concentration in the atmosphere may be attributed as the cause of the greenhouse effect, which in turn, may be responsible for changes all over the world that might not be reversible. Due to these factors the new and the old chemicals-based industries need to maintain a balance between the negative impacts caused by their activity and the benefits to human life provided by their production. New alternatives need to be designed for batch and continuous processes in order to achieve this equilibrium. The object of this chapter is to describe a systematic methodology for sustainable process design (this means less energy consumption, less CO2...

Methodology for Sustainable Process Design

This tool is particularly useful for retrofitting studies. The methodology identifies the critical points in the process related to energy consumption, raw materials consumption, water consumption, environmental impact reduction and safety. Once those points are identified, sustainable design targets are set and new process (retrofit) alternatives that match the targets are generated and evaluated to identify the optimal more sustainable process design.

Deregulation and Increased Competition

The electric power industry is a case in point. The USD 500 billion US and European electric power industries are being deregulated to allow for increased competition in wholesale generation and retail energy services. This is driving the development and deployment of technologies that improve energy efficiency, reduce costs to customers and respond to customer demand for improved power quality. One example is distributed generation, which enables customers to manage and produce their electricity on site, recover waste heat for other purposes, and reduce their vulnerability to grid-related power disruptions. Sales of emerging distributed energy technologies,

From megawatts to negawatts

The first priority in order to ensure the energy transition in the best way is to reduce energy consumption. Reducing this consumption contributes to decreasing the dependence on energy supplies and to eliminating the corresponding CO2 emissions, together with all other environmental impacts resulting from the production and use of energy. Within this context, any investment in reducing energy consumption is most suitable for resolving all the problems previously mentioned. Each watt saved while keeping the same level of satisfaction for the final user represents what can be called a 'negawatt'1. A negawatt has a higher value than an additional watt, because it can help to provide the same use or service, while avoiding the negative impact upon the environment of a supplementary production of energy. Replacing 'megawatts' by the production of 'nega-watts' is a most sensible choice, whenever it is possible. The efforts in this area are very sensitive to the price of energy. The first...

The evolution of the energy intensity

Energy consumption increases with the Gross Internal Product (GIP)2 once a certain level has been reached. The energy intensity, defined as the energy consumption related to the GIP, can be used as an indicator of the efficiency in the use of energy for ensuring living standards in a country and its evolution with time. Ultimately, the energy intensity of all countries tends towards a value close to 0.2 toe 1000 US GIP. Nevertheless, although the energy efficiency tends to decrease, the consumption of energy rises, as a result of the combined effect of demography and improving standard of life. As an indicator, the energy intensity has to be used with care. Indeed, a reduction of the energy intensity can be presented as a success, but may be not sufficient, if it is more than compensated by the growth of the GIP. It is necessary to reach a reduction of the energy consumption in absolute terms and only as related to a permanently increasing GIP.

Renewing the organisation of housing and transport

In contrast, more concentrated housing reduces transport distances and helps to develop collective transport modes. Figure 5.2 illustrates the correlation between lower energy consumption and population density 31 . Figure 5.2 Energy consumption for transport vs. urban population density (Source Newman P. and Kenworthy J., 1999) Figure 5.2 Energy consumption for transport vs. urban population density (Source Newman P. and Kenworthy J., 1999) It becomes necessary to look for the global optimisation of housing, transport and energy management. This optimisation has to be undertaken at different levels individual house or building, district ('eco-district' concept), city ('sustainable city' concept). These transformations challenge the present way of life and the fact that their implementation requires time means that it is urgent to start their deployment. As everyone is affected, it is necessary to increase public awareness of urban communities and to involve the public in the...

Improved Design for Multi Columns

Several distillation steps are required for the complete separation of a multicom-ponent mixture into individual components. For complete fractionation of multi-component mixtures a large number of different separating sequences are possible. The selected separating path determines the investment and operating costs. Operating costs are determined primarily by energy costs.

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