Ultimate Guide to Power Efficiency

Power Efficiency Guide

The Power Efficiency Guide is a step-by-step guide showing the users how to create their own Home Power Plant. The E-book was created just to explain and help people out of the problem they face because of the lack of electricity. The guide was made to help the users use about 90% of the tools they use regularly in their various houses for the creation of a power generator, which will beneficial to them and their family. The device uses the endless power principle used to make the electric cars constantly charge themselves from the wheels when not being accelerated. It is a unique concept that can be used in every home. It was created in such a way that it would be a quick fix for the users' electricity problem. In other words, when the users purchase it during the day, the users will be able to make use of it before night falls. The process is so easy that even a little child can fix it up. The guide is such that comes at a cheap price and would help in the reduction of the amount the users might have to pay for regular electricity bill due to the number of appliances used at home. Read more here...

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Renewable energy policy and climate policy interactions

This paper explores the relationships between climate policy and renewable energy policy instruments. It shows that, even when CO2 emissions are appropriately priced, specific incentives for supporting the early deployment of renewable energy technologies are justified by the steep learning curves of nascent technologies. This early investment reduces costs in the longer term and makes renewable energy affordable when it needs to be deployed on a very large scale to fully contribute to climate-change mitigation and energy security. The paper also reveals that both CO2 prices and the measures to deploy renewable electricity create wealth transfers between electric utilities and their customers, although in opposite directions. This may be important when considering the political economy of the interactions between CO2 pricing and renewable energy support in the future.

Energy policy in the UK 19452000

Energy policy has had an erratic career. The politics of energy have sometimes been at the top of the national political agenda and at other times virtually disappeared. In the period from 1945 to the early 1950s 'fuel and power' was a dominant policy issue. Coal was the principal fuel, and investment in the mines had been neglected for decades. After nationalisation in 1947 there was a revival of coal production, and low-price oil imports started to flow in the later 1950s and 1960s. By the late 1950s, with fuel and power supplies relatively secure, the issue faded. Meanwhile, first natural gas and then oil began to flow from the North Sea. By the mid-1980s, when oil prices fell back for a 15-year period, energy policy had disappeared again. Nigel Lawson, then Prime Minister Thatcher's Secretary of State for Energy, famously announced the death of energy policy in 1982 (Lawson, 1982). By 1992 the Department of Energy was abolished, with its remit split in two and subsumed into...

Energy Management System and Benchmarking

All the measures for sustainable energy efficiency presented above are integrated in a comprehensive energy management tool. It consists of the following core components Energy loss cascade Analysis of the energy efficiency, with technological, operational and production parameters being assigned to specific energy use to enable energy losses to be precisely pinpointed. Real-Time Energy Efficiency Monitor Monitoring system which enables energy efficiency to be increased through operational intervention. Energy Efficiency Key Performance Indicators (KPI) Quantified energy efficiency indicators that represent efficiency achievements and their temporal development. Energy Efficiency Benchmark Standardization ofthe energy efficiency values and KPIs for the purposes of cross-plant comparability. Sustained Energy Efficiency Improvements Target-setting and sustainable tracking of both energy efficiency and the implementation of measures to increase energy efficiency and reduce climate...

Technocracy in energy policy A critique

Changing an energy system involves not only technology choices, but also considerations about the legal, regulatory and market framework, infrastructure (such as housing and land use decisions), the factors shaping individual behaviour and prevailing values and norms in society. In principle, a team of experts with sufficiently broad expertise could address these complexities. In practice, the assembled experts are more likely to disagree on actions needed because of their divergent views on both the objectives to be achieved and the means to attain them. In a situation characterised by both scientific uncertainty and controversy objective expert advice along the traditional lines becomes impossible. Under these conditions expert knowledge often cannot tell us what the 'optimal' or the 'best' solution for society is. Nevertheless policy advice tools such as CBA and forecasting are widely used in addressing complex energy policy questions in efforts to provide this sort of absolute...

Energy Efficient Refineries

What is a refinery A huge energy consuming and transforming machine that uses heat and power to separate and recombine atoms. An immense thermal engine with lots of flows coming in and out, and in midway frantically crossing with each other a few main pieces of equipment and a bunch of many auxiliary ones, spending, changing and moving energy. Refineries need energy to convert crude oil into transportation and heating fuels, chemicals, and other products. Enormous amounts of heat are required to separate crude oil into its components, such as gasoline and diesel, also to crack hydrocarbon molecules into smaller ones, which generate lighter and more valuable products. All this should be coordinated, in order to provide appropriate conditions, especially pressure and temperature, for these core processes, at their best economic point. This economic point depends on many items, like the refinery technological design stage, cast of crude oils it processes, portfolio of products, and also...

Good Practices for Energy Conservation Programs

Concerning all the lessons learned and results achieved, it is possible to trace a route to energy efficiency, not only as a short-term goal, but as process, an improvement cyclic process. Day-to -day work or good housekeeping means making the most of existing assets. This, in turn, means running and maintaining facilities at maximum efficiency, as well as learning, developing and using best practices. Developing these practices or procedures is a trial cycle. It involves learning about what is the primary energy consumption situation, investigating where the losses and opportunities for better use are and setting some goals for improvement. It is necessary to study, design and experiment new ways of performing the same operations, to try to avoid these losses. If losses can be avoided, you have begun improving the process energy productivity. In case it is a failure or results are below the expected, it is time to go back to the drawing board, and another trial cycle.

Energy Market Conditions

Energy market conditions have a significant impact on the viability of EE projects. Fuel availability and prices and projected energy supply and demand are critical factors affecting the profitability of EE projects. Other factors that have to be taken into consideration include (a) energy policies, legislation and regulations, such as EE efficiency standards, labelling practices and building codes (b) the existence of utility restructuring activities and demand-side management programmes (c) specific EE initiatives, such as tax incentives and (d) environmental regulations, such as limits on emissions of energy-related air pollutants, including nitrous oxides, methane, sulphur dioxide and carbon dioxide.

Improvements in energy efficiency

Several of the global models (see the review in Dean and Hoeller 1992 26-7) employ a parameter called AEEI (autonomous energy efficiency improvement) to capture a perceived economic tendency to move towards greater energy efficiency independently of relative price changes (i.e. of substitution effects, which Manne and Richels (1991), for example, model through a separate parameter, ESUB, the elasticity of price-induced substitution). Whether or not investment and improvements in energy efficiency will accelerate with a carbon tax, many analysts have argued that market failures are preventing the implementation of some cost-efficient energy conservation measures now (e.g. Jackson and Jacobs 1991, Lovins and Lovins 1991 Chapter 10 in this volume). After reviewing this issue, Cline (1992 227) decides that a reasonable estimate is that the first 22 per cent of carbon emissions from base can be cut back at zero cost. The incorporation of such costless cuts in the cost-generating models...

Road to a Sustainable Future A Systematic Understanding of Energy Efficiency and Climate Change

Human beings influence the climate through many activities. Though technological solutions exist, inefficient practices adapted by social, economic, informational and institutional actions hinder their penetration. We also believe that policies do have the required leverage to influence the energy path and a significant reduction of energy consumption levels can be achieved if such policies are promoted. Active intervention in markets and private capital mobilization are critical complements to policies. For students, policy makers, researchers, practitioners and all those who have interest in a sustainable future, a roadmap, based on energy efficiency, has been outlined here to attain sustainable development. A broad, in-depth and systematic understanding is attempted keeping the approaches simple, fundamental and promising. Although the reader is challenged to create a new knowledge by critically adapting his her own experiences to the relatively complex contents of previous...

Energy policy in context

Energy policy is inevitably embedded in wider politics, and is often ill defined or implicit. It has unstable and permeable boundaries, shaping and being shaped by fiscal policy, foreign policy and other government concerns. Considerations of inflation, employment, the balance of payments, regional development, technological innovation and poverty alleviation have all figured in governments' formal or informal energy policies at different times and to different degrees. Currently, however, the 'energy triangle' (of supply security, market liberalisation and environmental protection) presents the central challenges for policymakers in the industrialised world. Energy policy embraces diverse objectives and instruments and the mix changes over time. In the second half of the twentieth century, industrialised countries shifted from the public provision of adequate supply to a greater emphasis on competition, market forces and private initiatives. Before the late 1980s energy policy was...

Externalities as Benefits and Drawbacks of Energy Efficiency

This section illustrates the large number of externalities in energy efficiency, since EE provides external benefits or imposed external costs in addition to financial outcome and energy production. As suggested in Table 5.9, the positive externalities are substantial. Table 5.9 Externalities of Energy Efficiency Energy efficiency disruption due to small size of power plants. (v) Lower investments in transmission and distribution (T&D) through energy savings and power stations located closer to customer loads. Externalities common to both RE and EE Energy efficiency (i) Pollution and waste produced by the production, distribution, and maintenance of renewable energy and energy efficiency equipment. Energy efficiency can also have negative externalities.39 EE is often promoted based on the assumption that the positive externalities outweigh the negative ones. Sometimes positive externalities can outweigh the lack of financial viability (in addition to any negative externalities). It...

Funding energy efficiency earmarked environmental taxes versus system public benefit charges

Energy efficiency can improve energy security, reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, promote economic growth and create jobs. However, market failures and other barriers have caused a pattern of underinvestment in energy efficiency, forcing governments to undertake policy interventions. Funding for these policy interventions may come from several sources, including government budgets, earmarked environmental taxes, and charges on network-delivered energy (gas and electricity). Classical economic theory holds that the government appropriations process is the most efficient way to allocate public funds among competing policy priorities. For this and other reasons the earmarking of environmental taxes to fund energy efficiency has received criticism from economists. In contrast, a different kind of earmarking, namely the funding of energy efficiency with network-delivered energy charges (sometimes called system public benefit charges or wires and pipes charges), has received a more...

Increasing Energy Efficiency and CO2 Mitigation in Buildings

Due to slow building turnover, increasing the energy efficiency of existing building stock and maximizing energy efficiency of new buildings is essential in reducing total building energy use. This includes a concerted effort both in building systems, design and in selection replacement of mechanical systems and appliances. The process is most efficient when comparing all building system components against each other, as commonly done in a building energy audit. Example tools for determining a building's energy use and potential energy savings can be found on the Department of Energy web page 23 . To be truly effective, an integrated design approach is needed both during initial building construction and retrofitting to determine the most effective method of maximizing individual building efficiency. For example, a relatively simple aspect such as building siting (based on reference angle with the sun instead of the road) can greatly affect the available natural lighting and building...

Bilibino Nuclear Power Plant

Bilibino Nuclear Power Plant in Russia's Far North is the world's northernmost nuclear power plant, and the only one in a permafrost region. (The Kola Power Station is also above the Arctic Circle, but has a milder climate.) Constructed from 1974 to 1976, the plant provides energy for the intensive industrial development of territories in the northern part of Magadan Oblast' and of the western part of Chukotka. These territories are rich in various mineral resources, but are remote from coal, oil, and gas deposits therefore, the construction of thermoelectric power stations is highly expensive, as are large-capacity diesel electric stations, which require the delivery of large volumes of diesel fuel. The main consumer of the electrical energy produced by Bilibino Nuclear Power Plant is the western Chukotkan mineral province, where there are sizeable known and prospective reserves of gold and tin ore (cassiterite). In the Bilibino area there are considerable placer deposits of gold and...

Energy Consumption and CO2 Emissions in General

Energy consumption increases with economic development in most countries. From 1990 to 2006 the total primary energy consumption rose from 370 to 500 Exajoule (EJ, 1EJ 1018J) or 35 14 , as shown in Figure 5. The energy consumption (500 EJ in 2006) has been satisfied by a relatively stable mix of energy sources since 1990. Fossil fuels like petroleum, coal and natural gas and electricity from nuclear and hydropower are the main energy sources. Other renewable energy sources, here named as 'others' in the graphic, still only play a Figure 5 Primary energy consumption by region (data from 14 ). 600- - Figure 5 Primary energy consumption by region (data from 14 ). 600- - Figure 6 Primary energy consumption by fuel (data from 14 ). Figure 6 Primary energy consumption by fuel (data from 14 ). The emission of GHG, expressed as C02e, is of course closely connected to the energy consumption and the mix of energy sources. Since renewable energy sources still are small on a global scale, the GHG...

Renewable energy Policy Project Repp

Founded in 1995, the Renewable Energy Policy Project (REPP) is based in Washington, D.C. The organization researches strategies to make renewable sources competitive in energy markets and to stabilize carbon emissions. REPP supports reindus-trialization through the use of renewable technologies. It demonstrates that solar, wind, biomass, and other renewable sources can provide energy services at or below the cost of nonrenewables when structural barriers are removed. REPP works directly with states and firms to help them develop their renewable portfolio. The organization also provides expert information to consumers to improve energy efficiency and guide their transition to alternative energy options. To promote sales of renewable energy products and services, REPP created a buyer's guide and consumer directory for approximately 5,000 businesses. REPP has linked social and economic development to ecological concerns. The staff argues that renewables take advantage of resources, such...

Drawbacks of Energy Efficiency

While the benefits seem sufficient to justify investment in energy efficiency, individuals typically do not use societal criteria when making personal Public money funds many governmental EE projects. The justification for this is to encourage people to invest in energy efficiency. These programmes Reduces local air pollution resulting from lower energy consumption. Lowers C02 emissions associated with lower energy consumption. Energy efficiency allow the governments to invest in EETs and the markets to offer rebates and other incentives to increase the number of purchases of cost-effective measures. Subsidizing new energy efficiency measures will help them to gain market acceptance and will thus facilitate market transformation. The general perception is that, without subsidies, there is little customer investment in cost-effective energy efficiency. However, this type of incentive approach has drawbacks. Incentive programmes do not eliminate the underlying market barriers for most...

Energy efficiency vs energy intensity

It is easy to confuse energy efficiency and energy intensity. Energy efficiency as we describe it above is a bottom-up view applied to individual activities. We describe energy intensity as a top-down or aggregated look at energy use in an economy. For consistency and clarity, the rest of this chapter will use the term efficiency for specific activities and intensity for aggregated energy use. However, the relationship between the two is far more complex and controversial than a simple aggregation. One measure in common usage to define energy intensity is primary energy supply divided by GDP (E GDP). For most OECD countries, this is between 7 and 14 mega-joules per US dollar (MJ US ) with the US and Sweden in the upper part of this range and Japan in the lower range (Azar and Dowlatabadi, 1998). However, energy intensity is not simply the inverse of energy efficiency. Energy intensity is also affected by a nation's climate, heating and cooling requirements, amount of indoor space,...

Non Fossil Fuel Power Plants

According to the IAEA's power reactor database, by the end of 2008, China had 11 operational reactors (8,438 MWe) and 9 were under construction (8,220 MWe). India on the other hand has 17 reactors in operation (3,782 MWe) and 6 under construction (2,910 MWe) 47 . One key difference in the two countries is the unit size and the choice of technology while Chinese plants are mostly 1,000 MWe pressurized water reactors (PWR), Indian plants are smaller in size, and have a mix of PWR, and indigenous pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR) and a fast breeder reactor (FBR). India does not have abundant natural uranium resources, and has limited technological capability to enrich uranium. Hence, the new nuclear deal with the United States and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) will clearly help India in importing uranium. India also has vast amounts of thorium reserves, which can be used in combination with fissile plutonium or uranium, to produce nuclear material for power...

Energy Efficiency Conclusion

Certainly there are several reasons, a number of pros and cons to improve energy efficiency. Theoretically, with the magic formula ceteris paribus, the pros prevail and the experience from developed countries confirms this in practice as well. Transition economies have a chance to either improve or introduce energy efficiency, and despite the fact that the obstacles and negatives exist, EE has a great potential, which should be utilized. Whilst an increase in energy efficiency investment can generate economic and business opportunities, it cannot be done unless there is an effective institutional mechanism to provide financing as well as technological inputs. The chapter provides a broad picture of the benefits and drawbacks of energy efficiency investment programmes. This is an opportunity for energy efficiency policy makers to study and work together with those responsible for areas, such as economic regeneration and local sustainable development to combine funding for projects that...

Energy Consumption and CO2 Emissions in the Chemical Industry

The chemical process industry is an energy intensive industry. The ICCA study 12 shows that the fuel consumption linked to the chemical industry amounts to 9 Exajoule in 2005. Here the fuel consumption for energy generation is considered, but not petroleum, coal or natural gas used as raw materials. The global energy consumption in 2005 was about 485 EJ (see Figure 5 in Section 3.1), that means the chemical industry consumes about 1.9 of the total global energy. On a global scale natural gas as the main energy source is also the main source of CO2 emissions. Because of the higher hydrogen content of natural gas in comparison to coal and petroleum the fraction is lower than for the energy consumption (47 of the total CO2 emission instead of 58 of the total energy consumption). By the analysis of data from the perspective of regions it follows that countries with a higher fraction of energy generation from natural gas contribute specifically less to C02 emissions than countries which...

Energy Efficiency Improvements

Although energy intensity has declined in the United States over the past 30 years (EIA, 2009 NRC, 2009d), per capita consumption in the United States still exceeds that of almost all other developed countries. In addition, a considerable fraction of the intensity improvements in the United States may be due to the changing nature of demand (e.g., the shift away from manufacturing toward a service- and information-based economy) as well as increased imports of energy-intensive products and materials, which simply shift emissions to other locations. The recent report Real Prospects for Energy Efficiency in the United States (NRC, 2009c), part of the America's Energy Future suite of activities, carried out a comprehensive review of methods to improve energy efficiency in industry, buildings, and transportation sectors. The report concludes that energy efficient technologies in those sectors exist today that could be implemented without major changes in lifestyles and could reduce energy...

The Benefits and Drawbacks of Energy Efficiency

The aim of this chapter is to discuss the methods of assessing the advantages and drawbacks of energy-efficient technologies (EET) as well as projects. It is a proven fact that in specific situations and well-chosen energy efficiency (EE) proposals, benefits significantly outweigh drawbacks. However, it is important to mention the perceived and actual disadvantages and complications. In the present chapter, both these aspects are discussed from the perspective of the governments, businesses establishments and households. As the scope of investigation is a global one and the resulting drawbacks as well as benefits emerge out of a specific situation, this chapter should be understood as giving directions of thought rather than empirical evidence. The purpose of this chapter is to help the reader decide which EE programmes would give positive effects, and which would not, based on which he can learn to discriminate between alternative EE proposals.

Energy Efficiency in the Chemical Industry

Energy efficiency has become one ofthe key topics not only in the chemical industry. There are three main reasons for that development 1) As mentioned in the last section energy prices rose significantly during the last ten years. In parallel with the energy prices the energy costs increased as a percentage of the production costs. Therefore there was and there is a high pressure on the industry, and especially the energy-intensive chemical industry, to work on the reduction of the specific energy consumption. 2) Secondly climate change became an ever more important issue in public discussion. The targets given by politics and public and the self-commitments of the industry led to an increased level of attention to energy efficiency and by this to additional efforts in the chemical process industry. To quantify energy efficiency we follow the CEFIC , the European Chemical Industry Council, which defines energy intensity as the energy input per unit of chemicals production 16 . Since...

Carbonless Transportation and Energy Storage in Future Energy Systems

By 2050 world population is projected to stabilize near ten billion. Global economic development will outpace this growth, achieving present European per capita living standards by quintupling the size of the global economy - and increasing energy use, especially electricity, substantially. Even with aggressive efficiency improvements, global electricity use will at least triple to 30 trillion kWh yr in 2050. Direct use of fuels, with greater potential for efficiency improvement, may be held to 80 trillion kWh (289 EJ) annually, 50 above present levels (IPCC, 1996). Sustaining energy use at these or higher rates, while simultaneously stabilizing atmospheric greenhouse gas levels, will require massive deployment of carbon-conscious energy systems for electricity generation and transportation by the mid 21st century. These systems will either involve a shift to non-fossil primary energy sources (such as solar, wind, biomass, nuclear, and hydroelectric) or continue to rely on fossil...

The Energy Efficiency Debate

There has been a long running debate between energy economists and energy analysts about various aspects of energy efficiency. One aspect is the rebound effect. Although definitions vary, this effect describes the following linkage the efficient use of energy leads to an increase in the use of energy. This may offset the savings in energy use achieved by the EE improvement partly.6 The theory of the rebound effect is rooted in the neoclassical It is suggested that in practice the rebound effect is not high enough to subtract the potential contributions of EE to the reduction of carbon emissions or the justification of EE policies.8 Nonetheless, some implications for policy follow from this. Energy-efficient technologies (EETs) may need to be reinforced by market instruments. A continued measurement and explaining effort should be put on to the rebound effect as economies are complex and changing.9 Henry Saunders argues that '( ) energy efficiency gains can increase energy consumption...

The high energy efficiency paradigm

The 1980s saw the emergence of a new energy perspective, which may be termed a paradigm of high energy efficiency, as part of the process of sustainable economic development recommended by the report Our Common Future of the World Commission for Environment and Development (1987). This innovative concept of economic development requires that current economic actions must not impair the economic options of future generations, and therefore energy systems must be redesigned to reduce the use of exhaustible energy resources and limit emissions. An obvious consequence for energy policy is the need to move towards high energy efficiency. This in turn requires changes in economic incentives, particularly in the price system.

World Energy Consumption

Before considering each energy source in detail it is useful to compare their contributions to world energy consumption. This serves to keep their relative importance in perspective. Figures 1.3 and 1.4 and Table 1.1 provide some figures for past consumption and estimates for the future. The four main producers are coal, oil, natural gas and nuclear, with smaller contributions from other sources. Hydro is the next in importance but as it is limited by the number of suitable rivers its contribution remains almost constant and its relative contribution decreases. The contribution of the remaining sources is rather small. The 'traditional' renewable energy sources such as wood, straw and dung (biomass) amounted to 0.9 GTOE in 1990. Modern biomass is growing special crops such as willow for subsequent burning. World energy consumption increased by 4.3 in 2004, with some countries increasing faster than others. Thus Chinese consumption increased by 15 in one year (Nuclear Issues, June...

Effects of energy consumption on the environment at local and regional levels

Energy consumption results in emissions of pollutants. Local pollution, characteristic of urban areas or caused by emissions from an industrial plant (factory, cement works, refinery, etc.), is converted into regional pollution through accumulation of pollutants in the atmosphere.

Historical Evolution from Energy Conservation to Energy Efficiency in Refineries

Energy conservation emerged during the oil crisis in the 1970s as a matter of survival for refiners. Since a refinery is an energy converting machine, that uses energy to perform this task, reducing its consumption means fewer costs and more products to sell, leading to better overall results. And at that time, as the industry faced pinched margins, that was a matter of survival. Because of this urge for survival, energy conservation evokes energy rationing and usually means restrictions and discomfort. Energy efficiency, on the other hand, may be considered the maturation of energy conservation. It is a more complex and sophisticated concept. Instead of being born during a crisis, it was bred by consolidation and endurance of energy conservation activities. It impels better use of natural resources and, consequently, human and economic development. Through technology and investments, the same processes should use less energy, which means more productivity, less operational costs and...

Empowering energy policy

This chapter has sketched some generic challenges confronting attempts to transform energy systems into sustainable forms. A number of features were suggested. The first was the technocratic nature of energy policy it tends to be a backwater political issue except when in trouble, when more diverse actors, including political leaders, enter the fray, each with their own rationales, priorities, and capabilities. Second, the current interest in a transition to sustainable energy systems is confronting energy governance developed with a different purpose in mind. That earlier purpose was the privatisation and liberalisation of a nationalised and highly centralised energy system. Post-privatisation Sustainable energy governance has to rethink and reform these inherited governance arrangements and the energy system. The case of governing the development of renewable energy systems revealed some of the complexities involved in terms of aligning different logics, actors, interests, skills,...

Energy markets are not free

Efficient markets also require clear and accurate price signals, which allow both producers and consumers to make optimal choices about their investments and consumption, yet energy prices ignore an array of costs. Health and environmental expenses associated with power-plant pollution, for instance, are paid by taxpayers and healthcare consumers. The government of Ontario, Canada, estimates that the health and environmental costs of electricity from Ontario's coal-fired generation plants total C 120 per megawatt-hour. Yet, power in the province is sold for just C 60 per megawatt-hour, which covers only fuel and capital amortization. Selling power at one-third its full cost (which includes additional operating expenses, overhead and profit) obviously distorts the market and motivates both producers and consumers to make decisions that are suboptimal for society. Despite these economic realities, virtually every new power plant has been of the centralized type. There is now, however,...

Why is energy efficiency important

Energy efficiency or how well the fuels are used. This chapter examines the role energy efficiency can play. We will argue that energy efficiency alone can not provide the solution to meet targets for abatement of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This is because the simultaneous and interacting effects of changes in global population, growth or shrinkage in the world economy, and the proportions of various fuels employed to meet energy needs, have a much greater potential to raise or lower GHG emissions. However, we will also argue that energy efficiency is an essential part of the solution to abating GHG emissions to meet global energy demands at a realistic cost. Changes in energy efficiency are affected by a host of technological, social, economic, and political factors. This necessitates that the processes of technological, social, economic, and political change be made an endogenous feature of any model of energy use, whether for specific activities or aggregated for the whole...

Center for Energy Efficiency

BASED IN MOSCOw, the Center for Energy Efficiency (CENEf) is a nonprofit independent Russian organization founded in 1992 to promote energy efficiency and environmental protection in Russia. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratories of Battelle Memorial Institute, the World Wildlife Fund, the Social and Ecological Union (in Russia), and Mikhail Berner, president of the Russian Energy Manager's Association, founded the center. Initial sponsorship was provided by the World Wildlife Fund, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Charles Stewart CENEf was founded with the intention to develop model legislation and policy proposals to implement energy efficiency measures in Russia during its transition to a market economy, while considering economic, environmental, and social impacts implied in such transition. CENEf identified energy efficiency-related issues and developed policy papers on these issues, initiated energy-efficiency projects, and promoted economic cooperation...

International Efforts on Energy Efficiency

The link between EE and pollution reduction has been discussed repeatedly in international treaties. The reasons for international support of EE are not limited to air pollution reduction. They also include a desire to reduce dependence on foreign oil supplies via using less imported fuels8 and sustainable economic development. The Council of Europe recognized in 1970 that 'improvements of the thermal insulation of buildings, ( ) results in a significant reduction of fuel consumption'.9 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Environmental Guidelines from 1974 added that '( ) establishment of regulations and higher standards for improved thermal insulation of new buildings' was a useful method to increase efficiency.10 In addition, '( ) more efficient use of fuels was useful to reduce air pollution'.11 These views have subsequently been memorialized in the 1988 Sophia Protocol,12 the 1994 Sulphur Protocol13 and the 1999 Gothenburg Protocol14 under which the...

Understanding the Energy Efficiency

The question being asked very often is why consumers and firms do not invest in cost-effective energy efficiency opportunities. Partly, the answer is that consumers and firms discount future savings of energy efficiency investments at rates well in excess of market rates for borrowings or savings. This pattern is referred to as the 'energy efficiency gap'.20 To understand the EE gap, it is essential to study (a) the characteristics of markets for energy-efficient technologies (EETs), (b) the nature of institutional energy-related decision making and (c) the nature of an individual consumer's energy-related decision making.

Fundamentals of Energy Efficiency

Energy efficiency (EE) is widely viewed as an important element of economic and environmental policy. However, there is little agreement on specific EE goals and the strategies to attain them. The lack of consensus stems from the fact that there are differing views about the meaning of EE and the means of implementing it. How much one will actually benefit from EE depends on how one approaches the issue. Also, the success in EE improvements depends on how well various actors help each other, and how well their actions are integrated. The present chapter aims to explain the nature and purpose of EE as well as its relation to various actors of the society and the environment. The chapter also presents a short overview of the current debate on EE in which the EE gap and the rebound effects are the main constitutes.

The Economics of Energy Efficiency

Generally the term EE is defined in a technical sense and relates a given level of service to a given level of input. To put it differently, an increase in EE occurs when either energy inputs are reduced for a given level of service or service is increased or enhanced for a given level of input. To be energy efficient per se is to provide services with an energy input that is small relative to a fixed standard or normal input.

Energy efficiency and energy services

Micro-generation could act as an important catalyst for demand reduction and consumer behaviour change. One way in which this could be achieved is by changing the way in which energy suppliers interact with citizens. This would build on the current incentives they have to implement energy efficiency measures. There is clear evidence that energy efficiency is the most economic way to reduce energy use (DTI, 2007a), but unlocking this potential can be difficult in practice. In addition to the EU-wide labelling scheme for white goods, the UK government has introduced policy instruments to encourage energy efficiency within households. One of the key policy instruments for encouraging energy efficiency in the UK and addressing emissions from the household sector has been the Energy Efficiency Commitment (EEC) which requires energy suppliers to implement measures to save specified amounts of GHG emissions. This was introduced in 2002 and runs in three three-year phases until 2011. Energy...

International Energy Agency IEA

THE council of the Convention on the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development founded the International Energy Agency (IEA) on November 15, 1974. Initial member countries were Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The initial documents allowed for further nations to join the IEA as of 2007, 26 countries are members, from Europe, Asia, North America, and the South Pacific (Australia and New Zealand). Its French name is Agence Internationale de l'Energie. There was an oil crisis 1973-74 in which the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC) refused to ship oil to nations that had supported Israel during the Yom Kippur war. Affected countries included the United States, Japan, and Western European nations. In response to the dependency of these affected countries on Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)...

Reframing energy policy

In this chapter we have provided several examples where central elements of energy policy have been discursively constructed so as to speak directly to core government priorities, such as economic growth and national security. This has served to maintain the dominance of the current framing of energy policy and to promote certain political interests. This is a challenging observation if one argues that energy policy needs to be reframed. The transition to a low carbon economy may be a good idea. Indeed, it is one that is increasingly central in policy discourses in both developed and developing countries. This does not, however, necessarily mean that this discursive shift will have any specific material impact on energy policy. The institutional constraints on discursive developments highlighted in this chapter still exist and must be confronted (or conformed to) before new policy ideas are likely to gain any influence. Having an impact on the core of energy policy requires...

Inherited energy systems sustainable transformations

Post-privatisation energy governance primarily 'sweated' energy assets developed under the preceding period of nationalised energy governance (Helm, 2004a). The physical energy system has been carved up between competing utility companies while new regulatory bodies ensure they compete in energy markets that operate more efficiently. But these new governance arrangements also brought some changes to the energy system such as a 'dash for gas' in electricity supply in the UK and a decline in coal use. Neither of these was as radical or comprehensive as the anticipated transitions to sustainable energy systems (whatever form they take), because that was not the point. The point was to make energy an efficient and profitable business sector. It is unsurprising that energy policymakers, regulators, and the energy consultants they commission possess skills sets dominated by the financial and economic analysis of energy assets and markets, and not in the techniques of social and environment...

Energy policy goals positions and debates

In most countries, energy policy pursues four goals, namely 'access', 'security', 'efficiency' and 'environment'. In developing countries the first goal is likely to constitute the main focus of domestic energy policy. With around 2 billion people worldwide lacking access to basic 'modern' energy services, it is unlikely that environmental concerns would be at the forefront of developing countries' energy policy priorities. In industrial countries, however, all four goals are likely to have significant influence. The desire is for everyone to have access to fuel and electricity on a reliable, continuous basis, and to convert and use it in ways that are not wasteful and do not cause unacceptable harm to human health or the natural environment. Walt Patterson (2006) argues that 'energy policy' has focused too strongly on commercial transactions involving units of fuel and electricity if the policy sphere is 'energy' then it should focus on the complete energy system, including relevant...

Energy policy as industrial policy

Despite this high-level endorsement, these arguments appear to carry little weight within some governments. In the UK, the notion that industrial policy and energy policy should be integrated is often dismissed in favour of a laissez faire attitude. Policy documents do not often express a view about the source of low carbon innovations that are to be deployed in the UK. The 2007 Energy White Paper has just a single paragraph about what it calls 'innovation and wealth creation' as a result of reducing carbon emissions (DTI, 2007a, p. 217), but this does not get into specific details about the industries that could be developed. Perhaps this is also related to the notion that government should not get involved in 'picking winners'. Civil servants sometimes complain in private that they would like government to offer more support to particular technologies. But their arguments that new UK-based industries could be established through this support are not taken seriously elsewhere in...

Deliberative energy policymaking for transitions

The socio-technical transitions perspective developed in this chapter emphasises that structural transformation of energy systems will require changes in markets, institutions, policies, technologies, behaviour and culture. Government policies alone cannot bring about such changes, especially not through expert-led, technocratic policymaking processes. Encouraging system-wide changes requires engagement with In conclusion, governments should promote deliberative processes in energy policymaking, notably through visioning exercises, scenario planning and institutionalised learning. CBA and expert-led forecasting and modelling exercises are two among many possible methods to inform policymaking, suited to situations of low uncertainty and high consensus on values and worldviews, when all participants have agreed that such a limited framing is appropriate. Major decision making processes for sustainable energy transitions are typically highly uncertain, and lack a consensus on values....

Appraising energy systems

The traditional mainstream perspective on energy systems has been one in which various technologies offer energy at a range of 'levelised costs'. This approach is based on a narrow engineering perspective, focusing on the specific technology in isolation from the broader system. The increasing involvement of private capital in electricity investments has drawn attention to the deficiencies of this perspective. Large investors are interested not only in unit costs, but also in the financial risks associated with using specific technologies within portfolios of different energy investments. Capital cost increases, fuel price volatility and 'regulatory risk' must all be taken into account. Low cost but high risk options can be balanced in a portfolio with low risk options, resulting in lower overall generating costs across the portfolio. This perspective has much to recommend it as a starting point for system level appraisal of energy options. Within evolving portfolios of energy...

Energy efficiency Uncovering hidden treasures

Energy efficiency is our best source of energy. Every kilowatt hour of electricity, every litre of oil, every tonne of coal that we do not consume protects the climate and saves money. The implementation of the EU target of a 20 per cent efficiency increase by 2020 alone is estimated to reduce energy costs in Europe by 100 billion Euros per year. Moreover, investments in energy efficiency pay off in many cases with the technology available today. However, awareness of this fact still has to be conveyed to decision-makers in all sectors, to private consumers, managers of small- and medium-sized enterprises and officials responsible for public spending. At the same time, Germany is urging the EU Commission to introduce a more effective and consumer-friendly labelling of energy-using products. Often consumers are unaware of 'hidden costs' caused by energy consumption in standby mode or the overall life-cycle costs of an appliance, although these are often higher than the actual purchase...

International Energy Agency

The International Energy Agency (IEA), an autonomous agency, was established in November 1974. Its primary mandate was - and is - two-fold to promote energy security amongst its member countries through collective response to physical disruptions in oil supply, and provide authoritative research and analysis on ways to ensure reliable, affordable and clean energy for its 28 member countries and beyond. The IEA carries out a comprehensive programme of energy co-operation among its member countries, each of which is obliged to hold oil stocks equivalent to 90 days of its net imports. The Agency's aims include the following objectives Secure member countries' access to reliable and ample supplies of all forms of energy in particular, through maintaining effective emergency response capabilities in case of oil supply disruptions. Promote sustainable energy policies that spur economic growth and environmental protection in a global context - particularly in terms of reducing greenhouse-gas...

Energy Efficiency and International Environmental

This chapter looks at the relationship between international environmental law and energy efficiency (EE). International environmental law has spoken repeatedly on the concept of EE but typically in the form of general statements in support of domestic efforts to improve efficiency and not in terms of specific goals or enforceable obligations. This is because historically international law has left EE policy to the domestic sphere. Certain provisions of international climate change treaties recently enacted, however, may signal an increased willingness of the international community to delve into EE matters. Notably, the Kyoto Protocol, as implemented by the Marrakech Accords, contains provisions for policies and measures, joint implementation (JI) and the clean development mechanism (CDM) that may indicate an increased willingness on the part of the international community to engage more directly in policy and implementation issues pertaining to EE.

Evolution Of Paradigms For Analysing Energy Systems

There has been an evolution of the theoretical concepts used for analysing the energy sector of an economy over the last two decades. We put forward the hypothesis that the emerging new understanding of the structure of our energy systems requires a modification of our conception of causal relationships and an adjustment of methodologies. Figure 11.1 Final energy consumption

Definition of energy efficiency

Before defining energy efficiency it is instructive to define what energy provides. Units of energy are not valued in themselves rather the economic value of energy is derived from the services that it provides keeping the lights on, heating a room or transporting goods and people to a destination. Therefore, energy efficiency is a measure of the energy used in providing a particular level of energy services. Secondly, a general paradigm in which to consider energy efficiency is not one whereby technological innovation offers energy savings that are then limited by high costs, social inertia or political maneuvering. Energy efficiency is instead a complete analysis of how the technical, political and social aspects of some societal undertaking interact both within the specific activity and with other activities. Therefore, some of the most promising mechanisms for energy efficiency may be video-conferencing over the Internet, a firm's drive to ensure lights are switched off in...

Economics of energy efficiency adoption

The discussion so far has illustrated the bumpy route of economic and operational factors that leads to new efficient technologies and stressed the importance of institutional support to create a cycle of continued use with resultant technical improvement and cost reductions. But all of these insights into the process of increasing energy efficiency lead to naught if consumers and firms do not adopt these energy efficient technologies. Of course costs play a pivotal role in the uptake of energy efficiency. Individual efficiency investments have been shown to be induced by rising energy prices (Newell et al., 1999). When analyzing the uptake of energy efficiency innovations, these technologies have historically poor levels of adoption despite the high projected rates of returns. This has been called the Energy Paradox (Jaffe and Stavins, 1993). Explanations have included the additional costs that it poses to organizations to change their method of operation (Cebon, 1992), or that for...

The Concept of Barriers and Drivers and its Application to Energy Efficiency

The aim of the present chapter is to examine the nature of barriers and drivers to energy efficiency (EE), the circumstances in which they arise, their relative importance in different contexts and the manner in which different actors intervene to overcome these barriers. The chapter reviews current perspectives on barriers and drivers, classifies them according to their influencing patterns and provides supporting evidence for their prevalence. Finally, this chapter develops a new systematic classification and explanation of barriers and drivers to EE. Using an 'actor-oriented approach', the chapter tries to identify (a) the drivers and barriers that affect the success or failure ofenergy efficiency investments, and (b) the institutions that are responsible for the emergence of these barriers and drivers. This taxonomy aims to synthesize ideas from three broad perspectives, namely, micro (project), meso (organization) and macro (state, market and civil society). The chapter develops...

The Role of Institutions in Promoting Energy Efficiency

Using the example of support for clean energy in countries in transition, this chapter discusses the lessons of experience of institutions in supporting energy-efficient technologies (EETs). The emphasis is on analyzing the performance of organizations, particularly the multilateral institutions (MIs) in promoting EETs. A key conclusion from the analysis is that although there may be some technical blueprints that MIs can apply to all countries, there are no blueprints for the design of projects. What works in one country does not necessarily work in another. Therefore, each project needs to be developed anew with reference to the implementing institutions and the framework conditions in a particular country.

Understanding Tradeoffs for a Successful Energy Policy

Existing technologies and approaches can deliver significant gains in EE. However, to date, there has only been limited success in terms of adopting these technologies and approaches by industries and domestic markets. This is because, there is a general belief that inefficient practices are primarily caused by social, economic, informational and institutional actions working against a shift to more energy efficient practices. For example, there is a general acknowledgement of the fact that there are potential gains in areas other than those that directly benefit from improved energy management, but there is a limited understanding of the nature and extent of these 'flow-on' benefits. In formulating energy policy, government agencies need to understand how to use these flow-on benefits to promote a wider adoption of energy efficient practices (Box 1.1). This requires identifying and quantifying the barriers and drivers in terms of factors such as economic growth, environment,...

Energy Efficiency and Clean Energy as New Hitech Markets

Energy efficiency and clean energy may provide an opportunity to participate and create a new market. Patrick Mazza from Climate Solutions, an advocacy group, suggests that 'Clean energy generation and end-use efficiency represent a USD 3.5 trillion market over the coming 20 years, even with no new public priority'.26 There will be plenty of business opportunities in resource efficiency and productivity in the energy, water, agriculture, transportation and forest product industries. Examples of these opportunities include fuel cells, enzyme-based water treatment systems, precision farming technologies and bio-based fuels and speciality chemicals. It is estimated that the combined value of the resource productivity and efficiency market of these industries exceeds USD 60 billion and is growing rapidly.

Energy Efficiency Policies

Energy efficiency policies usually consist of instruments of governmental intervention into the energy market. These instruments aim to overcome barriers to investment in EE improvements. Although there are some standard policy measures for governmental intervention in markets, such as taxes, subsidies, laws, regulations and provision of information or provision of services, their application varies according to each sector, taking into account their different characteristics. Table 4.3 gives an overview of further policy-relevant features of energy sectors. Regulatory and social instruments building energy efficiency standards, technical assistance, audits, fiscal incentives for improving thermal efficiency and labelling. Research and development (R&D) in EETs, such as low carbon fuels, advanced solar photo-voltaic technologies, is seen as long-term effort to reduce energy consumption levels. However, energy-related R&D carried out in an organized way by different actors and...

Financing Energy Efficiency in Transition Economies

This chapter discusses the linkages between energy efficiency (EE) and the financing mechanism. Now that more financial and institutional resources are available to support EE in transition economies, it is important to channel these resources into profitable investments and indicate to financial institutions that their money is safer and profitable in EE projects. Getting finances in emerging markets means overcoming significant challenges. It requires careful planning, serious investment of time and resources, and simultaneously, aggressiveness and openness to other ways of doing business. For some companies, the costs may be too great. But EE markets also offer growth potential that is unimaginable in the technology-saturated developed economies. Institutions that approach these markets in a realistic, savvy and persistent manner often find that their efforts are more than well rewarded. This chapter is designed to help institutions that are involved in EE to identify and assess...

Benefits of Energy Efficiency

Table 5.1 Positive Aspects of Energy Efficiency Table 5.1 Positive Aspects of Energy Efficiency reduced expenditure. In the long run, households enjoy the benefit of lower expenditures on energy, while increasing their comfort and well-being. For commercial and industrial sectors, using energy more efficiently reduces the cost of producing goods and services. This in turn can translate into lower production costs, higher output and more profits in the short term. The lower product price results in increased sales. This means that these sectors employ more workers to satisfy the increased demand for their products. The increased employment, of course, improves the performance of the local economy. The governments can also benefit from energy efficiency improvements as government-owned buildings can use less electricity, oil, gas and water. They can also use less electricity for street lighting. The local transport system that uses petrol and diesel fuel will save significant amounts of...

Energy efficiency fund for energy demand management

Given the unsatisfactory results of the income tax compensation approach, in the next scenario the revenues of the energy import tax are used to stimulate energy conservation both in households and in companies. We propose that the additional tax revenues are used in a fund for improving energy efficiency. Thus special programmes to improve the energy quality of buildings and equipment could be launched. Our simulations assume that the energy tax revenues are split between households and companies. Estimates have to be made about the potential-energy saving effect and the impact on investment and non-energy consumption. A conservative estimate drawn from various pilot projects leads to the conclusion that the energy conservation investments would lead to an annual reduction in energy flows of 15 per cent. There is also plenty of evidence that at least at the margin an energy unit saved is not more expensive than an energy unit consumed. We therefore assume that the amount of energy...

Structural Change The Key To Greater Energy Saving

Different technological investment options are accorded different financial criteria according to the map imposed by the market structure in energy. In very broad terms, this market structure can be thought of as being determined by a wide variety of different factors including of course regulatory frameworks, tariff structures, ownership patterns, price regulation formulae and the structure of energy institutions. These factors in themselves are often influenced by 'softer' institutional and social factors such as historical preference, received wisdom, corporate practice and so on, as well as by less easily quantifiable but nevertheless economically significant factors like the availability of information and expertise. In other words, almost all of those factors which have frequently been identified as market barriers to the implementation of energy efficiency have a bearing on the structure of the energy market, and therefore on the map which allocates specific profitability...

Energy Efficiency

Extra value Consider its fundamental and biggest supporting function for process, which is to be the currency of energy conversion and exchange. In this aspect, utility generation and distribution is crucial for overall energy consumption in the industry. And as mentioned in Section 10.1.4, all energy savings or consumption reductions can end up reducing immediate costs and in the long term, avoiding additional investments in enlargement of utility systems. All these contribute to current and long term economical results. Energy efficient operation and design is the core business of a well-managed utility system. It makes the difference from just complying with its mission to excelling and contributing significantly to the industry. To fulfill this task, understanding the utility system, its components and interrelation is basic.

Energy Consumption

Globally, total energy consumption grew from 4,675 to 8,286 million tons of oil equivalent between 1973 and 2007 (IEA, 2009). The United States is still the world's largest consumer of energy, responsible for 20 percent of world primary energy consumption. The next largest user, China, currently accounts for about 15 percent. Energy consumption in the United States has increased by about 1 percent per year since 1970, although there is no longer a direct relationship between energy use and economic growth. Between 1973 and 2008, for example, U.S. energy intensity, measured as the amount of energy used per dollar of gross domestic product (GDP), fell by half, or 2.1 percent per year (EIA, 2009). Despite this trend, the United States still has higher energy use per unit of GDP and per capita than almost all other developed nations. For example, Denmark's per capita energy use is about half that of the United States (NRC, 2009c). A nation's energy intensity reflects population and...

EU energy policy

Today's EU was founded on energy but over its history it has, on more than one occasion, foundered on energy as well. The original European Coal and Steel Community (1951-2002) was an attempt to overcome differences over how these key resources were to be managed, while the Euratom Treaty (on nuclear power, signed in 1957) sought to harness a cooperative approach to the management of what was seen to be the fuel of the future. As it turned out, neither was particularly successful, and it was instead the more mundane principle of a common market that was to be the main driver of European integration. Indeed, energy was to prove a difficult issue upon which to agree a common European policy. From the 1950s attempts to formulate a common energy policy resulted in very little of substance, and even the 1970s energy crises failed to trigger closer cooperation. On the contrary it largely exposed the differences between states. Beyond some rather general objectives and some funding, mainly...

Energy Conservation

Many of these energy-saving measures can be taken immediately, but others take time and may themselves be energy-consuming. Thermostats and lagging, for example, have to be manufactured, and this costs energy. There is a time-lag before there is a net saving of energy. It is much easier to design and build an energy-saving house than to convert an existing building. It is easy to urge that energy be saved, but far more difficult to convince people to take the necessary action. If energy is cheap, people just cannot be bothered to take energy-saving measures. Furthermore, many of the energy-saving measures themselves cost money, and even if there is a long-term gain this is a strong disincentive. It is easy to reduce energy consumption by increasing the price but this can provoke a violent political reaction, as happened recently in the UK when the price of petrol was raised. Furthermore, a rise in energy price hits the poor harder than the rich, and can seriously affect their health....

Feedstock Extraction Transportation and Preparation

In addition to the increased energy costs driven by the power sector, the preparation of feedstock used for chemical production is also energy intensive which results in a high level of direct emissions associated with the refinery cracking process. Approximately 4 of the world's oil and equivalent fossil fuels are used as feedstock for plastics and chemicals 19 . It is also important to consider the feedstock route and whether they are derived from gas, oil, ethane, coal, or biomass. When examining the energy consumption 16) The spark spread refers to the theoretical gross margin of a gas-fired power plant from selling a unit of electricity, having bought the fuel required to produce this unit of electricity. The clean spark spread refers to the spread indicator which includes the price of carbon allowances. gross margin of coal- fired power plants

International Offsetting in a Post2012 Context

While the CDM and JI have offered an initial pathway for companies to invest in low carbon technologies, there are key limitations of the mechanisms which prevent the wide ) spread deployment of technology based solutions that reduce energy consumption and GHG emissions. These drawbacks are primarily attributed to the ' project)based' nature of the existing offset mechanisms, making it difficult to demonstrate additionality and select the appropriate baseline scenario, particularly for highly integrated industries such as the chemical process industry.

Combination of Methods

Just as a combination of goal-setting and feedback unites the strengths and decreases the weaknesses of each individual behavior change method (see above), so does a comprehensive mixture of interventions of the theories described in Sections 3.2.1-3.2.5. Many researchers and numerous studies have shown that a combination of strategies and methods is generally more effective to increase energy awareness and sustainable behavior than applying solely one strategy or a single intervention (e.g., 36-38 ). Gardner and Stern 39 found that for example, the provision of education to inform and change attitude as well as the alternating of material incentives for specific behavior through rewards and penalties can change behavior. However, programs which include combinations of interventions lead to much more success than individual interventions. An evaluation study about major investments in home energy conservation highlights the effect marketing and communication have within its...

Individual and Organizational Change Processes

The implementation of a state-of-the-art energy awareness program with its ultimate goal to reduce energy use through modification in human behavior, concentrates on an increased awareness and behavior change of the individual. At the same time, each employee should also carry through their everyday work as well as social energy conservation into the entire plant or company. With this approach, changes on individual levels can foster the change of an entire organization towards energy preservation or environmental sustainability. The credo is organizational change through individual change

Operational Improvements and Process Control

The best tool for the improvement of these parameters is the analysis of a process model (see Section 4.3.5). It is not so laborious to optimize the parameters in a model by a sensitivity analysis in comparison with plant or lab experiments. An experienced engineer is able to find improvement ideas (not only for energy savings) performing numerical experiments in the model and assessing the results. An example We modeled a complete polymerization process with reaction and processing. The reactor was cooled by boiling off the reaction mixture, and the gas stream from the reactor was condensed and recycled to the reactor. Our model showed a high concentration of by-products in the loop and in the reactor, until then unknown to the plant staff. This by- product came into the plant with one of the monomers. With the help of the model we could find out the optimal localization of a purge stream and its recommended size. The existing purge was modified according to our suggestion. As a...

Waste treatment and materials recycling

Processes and equipment ensuring better energy conservation should be considered as contributing to the development of green technologies, Raw materials can be recycled while avoiding the pollution which would result from dumping the waste in the environment, this recycling helps to preserve the raw material thus recovered. It also represents a way to reduce energy consumption, as the amount of energy required for recycling the material is usually lower than the amount required for the initial transformation. For reducing energy consumption while protecting the environment

Optimized Process Conditions

The oldest process is the amalgam process, where the specific energy consumption is in the region of 3.6MWht_1 chlorine. The amalgam process has been consequently replaced by a more efficient membrane process, characterized by about 30 lower electricity consumption, of c.a. 2.5 MWht-1 chlorine as illustrated in Figure 7.27. Over recent years, membrane technology has been optimized to such an extent that no substantial reduction of the energy demand can be expected from further process modifications 33 .

The carbon content of the primary energy supply

In addition, a fuel such as natural gas offers high energy efficiencies, especially through the use of combined cycles. In this type of cycle, steam is produced by recovering heat from the exhaust gases of the gas turbine and used to drive a steam turbine. The energy efficiency of a natural gas combined cycle therefore reaches a value of nearly 60 , whereas the efficiency of the present coal-fired power stations is in the range of45-47 .

Environmental Regulations

Environmental regulations, if properly designed, can serve as a driver for investments in energy efficiency. In the absence of environmental regulations, the societal costs of electricity generation in the form of air emissions, water use and other environmental impacts are not borne by the energy producer or by the consumer. Consequently, these actors are not aware about the true societal costs of their production and consumption decisions. Environmental regulations can force producers and consumers to internalize these environmental costs into the price of their energy goods and services in the form of increased environmental compliance costs. These increased environmental costs can send a price signal for increased investments in EE by making efficiency investments comparatively more attractive financially. Not all environmental regulations are created equally. If environmental regulation simply mandates the installation of a particular pollution control device, then the industry's...

Advanced Process Control and Performance Monitoring

Increasing number of companies in the chemical industry recognize the significance of information as an important factor for optimizing their production. Beside classical automation technology, modern operating systems delivering realtime information about the actual status of the process attract more and more attention. Performance monitoring, based on the monitoring of selected variables in the process, so-called KPI (key performance indicators), plays a dominant role in increasing productivity and reduction of energy costs 36 . Energy efficiency improvements can be achieved by optimized design of the equipment or the entire process as well as by optimized operation. Optimized operation is achieved by improved automation and process control or directly by better manual operation. What can often be observed is that processes are operated at a comfort zone. The energytnfluencing operating parameters are not challenged and not load) dependent. After a failure the process often remains...

Instrumentationand Control

Assuming that an air preheat system is installed, there are two control loops required. The induced draft fan should be used to control draft at the heater arch (immediately below the convection section) at 2 mm water gage negative pressure. The forced draft fan should be linked to stack oxygen. Actually, the reading is not taken from the stack but at the arch. This is for safety reasons since any air leaking past the convection section maintenance access doors will give a false high reading in the stack and risk incomplete combustion. Peak energy efficiency is achieved by using VFD on both fans, with dampers wide open.

Global Scenarios and Impact on the Oil Business

A refinery is a complex and integrated system designed to separate and transform hydrocarbon molecules contained in crude oil into specified products for diverse final purposes. It may vary from a simple refinery that runs a basic physical separation of crude oil by distillation, to a complex one that can also perform a series of chemical reactions to convert petroleum into a wider array of products. This process configuration is determined by the variety of different crude oils that are to be used and target market products. These many processing options intend to enhance yields of specific products that meet that target market specifications. All refineries use significant quantities of heat and power. For economic reasons, they are designed to use any lesser cost residual energy form, in particular those that don' t match market standards, like refinery fuel gas, heavy fuel oil or coke produced in their own operations. Due to natural gas production associated with crude oil and...

Energy and Material Balances

Energy use monitoring is basic for an energy efficiency program and its management. Lord Kelvin said ' To measure is to know.' and ' If you cannot measure it, you cannot improve it.' Measurement allows tracking and control, so that it is possible to learn about how much and what source of energy is used, and for which purposes. It is the foundation of any energy efficiency program. A comprehensive site energy balance must include all energy sources used by refinery units, especially fuel, steam and power in all its forms. Only after a good energy balance has been generated and regularly checked can the system be effectively evaluated. The current status can be determined and a baseline established for energy consumption of the facility. With this tool it will be possible to Track historical energy consumption, learning which production events impact it. Forecast energy consumption with production. Evaluate impact of investment by demonstrating energy savings with future projects. The...

Calculi and Approximation

The challenge lies in selecting the essential measurements to reach a level of accuracy that suits the needs of the energy efficiency potential. Good practice is to guarantee that precise meters are installed on the main production One should record not only the results, but the concept that helped built this methodology make it simple to understand. If it is a continuing and evolving job, it has to be traceable and reconcilable, to give every technical person that runs into it the ability to comprehend, check its accuracy and improve it. Explain assumptions underlying the calculations, like what is the time period considered, which unmetered flows are estimated, and how this estimative is done. Detail all functions that evaluate any dependent consumption, like steam for stripping in a distillation column, explaining how it was built and how it is expected to be used. The refinery scenario changes over time, for seasonal operational reasons like turnaround maintenance, or new projects...

Storage and Transport

Measures for energy efficiency in the tank farm are insulation of heated tanks, accurate heater design and steam feed. In the heater design of course the best fitted steam trap and best steam pressure must be selected. Needless to say that condensate recovery is also included. Use of an agitator for mixing is reinforced, instead of the common procedure of pumping around the liquids to promote the blending. This last practice spends much more energy than necessary for the mixing and is less effective, compared with what is obtained in a good blending of the products by an agitator. Pipelines The flow offluids is an essential and rather common daily operation in a refinery. Since all fluid flows pass in a pipe to be directed or withdrawn from processes and storage tanks, it is possible to estimate that a refinery regularly has to pump more than twice the volume of the distillation throughput. Considering crude oil, all products and necessary side flows, it is easy to find out that flow...

Extraheavy oils and shales

An oil shale is formed by a fine-grained sedimentary rock containing an organic matter which has not been completely converted into oil. Shale oil can be exploited by using mining technologies, but its exploitation has a strong environmental impact in the case of surface mining, destruction of vast natural areas, increased erosion, large energy consumption for processing the shale and extracting the oil, acid drainage, and air pollution. To date, its exploitation has not appeared to be economically competitive, as compared for instance with coal mining.

Education 9321 Speeches

Spreading knowledge of energy efficient techniques and exhibiting ongoing results is another regular task to keep the program alive. And speeches should be tailor-made for each audience, complying with their language as mentioned previously. But every speech must address some points to make it hit the spot.

Scheduling and Maintenance

A good maintenance program has to contemplate all planning, scheduling and monitoring for the maintenance assignments to be executed in a predictable and well organized way. The benefits of such a maintenance system are reliability, safety, availability and confidence in the operational assets that improve team work and employee morale. And it must match production planning and scheduling. Actually they must be structured together and when this planning and scheduling are well established, they can contribute to energy efficiency with substantial reduction of wasted energy and lost production by avoiding or diminishing effects of equipment breakdowns. But this effort begins well before any tools are seized or spare parts are changed.

Conditioning and Testing

Addressing energy efficiency some points deserve special attention. Before lighting any fire or turning anything on, do check if all insulation is properly installed and refractory is cured. If they are not attended from the beginning, energy is wasted to the environment at a higher rate than designed. Especially if the refractory is not cured, it breaks at the start of operation, and does not performs its tasks so more energy is lost. On initial pressurization, check if any leaks listed to be repaired really are secure. Verify thoroughly all repairs and equipment parts replacement that are related to energy performance, if they were accomplished and how effectively the renewed piece is working. Big differences from previous or expected performance should eventually postpone start-up for additional verification or at least be recorded for monitoring during the following operational cycle.

Best Practices in Operation

On average about 30 of the potential energy efficiency opportunities that are found on the energy balance and analysis stage can be achieved through operational best practices. These are low cost saving energy opportunities that derive from behavioral and procedures changes. Once these targets are reached, cash flow from these savings can promote improvements that depend on investment. Implementation is also a part of the learning cycle and gives immediate return for the awareness and education stage, building knowledge and skills by making the most of existing assets while preparing room for upgrading and better technologies. Among operational best practices it is possible to detach the more significant for refineries.

International Institutions

There is still a subjective restraint to admit that energy efficiency is part of the solution. Thus, if the expectations of developing countries have to be met, new markets have to be opened. It is important to involve the international financial institutions and prepare a lending policy consistent with their energy policy goals. Financing energy efficiency should be an important component of their lending policy. Innovative and creative financial solutions are the need of the hour. There is a vicious circle of high-risk perception, leading to a high premium on financing cost, leading to an even higher risk perception, and so on. The challenge is to convert the vicious circle into a virtuous one.

Energy Service CompaniesESCO

The ESCO or energy service company acts as a third party between the customer and the financial institution. This partnership enables the companies to invest in an efficiency upgrade and reduction of energy costs by using projected cash flows from future energy savings for investments today. The ESCOs are most active in the institutional, commercial, building and industry sectors (Figure 9.4). 'When the energy service contracts expire, clients can continue to benefit from reduced energy costs. ESCOs thus present a win win situation in terms of energy, economy and the environment,'14 notes European Bank for ESCOs encourage not only energy efficiency upgrades and financial savings but also fulfil larger roles such as reducing CO2 emissions and overcoming obstacles ofthe capital markets. ESCOs overcome information asymmetries. According to the World Bank, Energy customers in developing countries are usually unaware of potential cost savings provided by energy efficiency investments. If...

Upgrading and New Projects for Better Energy Performance

Completing potential savings in a refinery, the other 70 are upgrades that imply investment. Most of the investment in energy efficiency is based on well-established and common use technologies whose payback is guaranteed. But applying new technologies can bring competitive advantages, especially if it can significantly reduce energy costs, and as energy prices rise, these opportunities for payback can become more attractive. Large savings may be accomplished with high return rates and fast payback. And good management of selection and implementation of energy efficiency projects can make the difference by achieving real enduring and competitive enhancements. This is accomplished by a combination of choosing the right opportunities with adequate corporate attention and some use of new technologies. Corporate attention can be easily determined by establishing a special capital funding or allowing a differentiated expected return rate for energy efficiency projects. Even so, results...

Performance Contracting

Once investments in EE are proven profitable, another form of financing, called performance contracting, often carried out by ESCOs, is possible. This is a large and growing source of financing EE in many developed countries. In this financing, the savings are shared between the company and the performance contractor. The advantage for companies is that energy efficiency can be increased without making any initial capital investment. Performance contracting has a growing trend because of its win-win situation. Everyone comes out as a winner businesses, government and the taxpayer. According to the EBRD's 'Mechanisms to Finance Climate Friendly Technologies,' 'Returns from performance contracts range from 20-40 per cent'.20

Evolutionary Organization

Once energy efficiency is established and raised to a business issue for the refinery, by a managerial or corporate decision and an energy policy is set, organizing this activity is demanding. Some approaches for this organization have already been addressed, like additional tasks to some organization cell or function or the designation of a special advising or aide position to the site management. Nevertheless the committee is always necessary, because of multitask and cross sectional characteristics of the program. Many refineries and companies transit between some arrangements as these varing in time due to relative energy costs, availability of personnel and momentary corporate priority for the program. The creation of an energy management or an energy efficiency program management is a natural step for many companies. But how can it evolve and what can be the options for this evolution Concerning the actual strong link between energy efficiency and environmental, in some...

Future and Environmental Concerns

In order to prevail in the future, the refining industry will have to be sustainable, meaning being simultaneously profitable and environmentally compliant. And the optimized use of energy throughout the refinery complex is the beginning of sustainability. The sustainable refinery of the future will have energy efficiency as a paramount from design and advanced operational and maintenance best practices, taking energy productivity to new levels. This vision brings no radical revolution to oil refining to cope with higher standards on energy efficiency, exception for design and management point of view. Needless to say, energy consumption reduction directly implies CO reduction, and depending on future developments regarding climate change, energy efficiency must be integrated with other options to comply with deeper restrictions over greenhouse gas emissions regulations. Some revolutionary concepts may be applied. Diversification of load from exclusively crude oil to biomass, Energy...

CO2 capture and transport

This equipment operates at rather unfavourable conditions using large volumes of flue gases at a low pressure and low CO2 concentrations. The installations are bulky, costly and require fairly large amounts of energy, which can lead in some cases to almost double the energy consumption. This option has been considered for the FutureGen project launched in the USA. This project, for which a budget of around 1 billion US had been announced, was due to be demonstrated on the scale of a 275 MW power plant, planned to be operational by 2012. The project is now cancelled and restructured, which illustrates the difficulty of financing such demonstrations.

Aggregating Individual Projects into Large Programmes

If the objectives are similar, aggregating individual projects into large programmes can be beneficial. Such programmes would allow the mass production of energy efficiency equipment. As small projects have high fixed transaction costs relative to total costs, there is an advantage in making large projects and programmes. Small projects can be bundled together, or can be linked to supply-side projects. Large programmes should reflect demands of specific users and locations. As different users have different motivations, such programmes should be integrated into sector strategies.25

Investment and Operational Costs

It is important to emphasize one point mentioned at the beginning. Utilities systems are a priority only in a utility company, where it is the core business. In all others, it can be a sensitive part of the process, but usually doesn't pay the bills. If it is working and supplying demand, it is just fulfilling its purpose if not, it is impairing the plant's ability to carry out its mission, jeopardizing profitability and subsistence. So, it is possible to conclude that utilities are among those basic resources that hardly anyone pays attention to, except when a shortage happens. But, if appropriately managed, they can help make the difference to results, through energy efficiency.

Geological storage operations worldwide

Numerous EOR projects involving CO2 injection are being investigated worldwide. Many such projects operate or are launched in the USA where 70 such projects exist already. New projects are also being investigated in Europe. In the north of Scotland, BP has been investigating the injection of 1.3 million tons of CO2 per year produced by a 350 MW power plant located at Peterhead in northeast Scotland. Shell and Statoil are investigating an EOR project involving the injection in the Norwegian field of Draugen of 2.5 million tons of CO2 recovered from a gas-fired 860 MW power plant. In Germany, electricity producers have announced their intention to build pilot plants and demonstration units for validating the application of CCS to coal-fired power plants. The Vattenfall Company is building a 30 MW pilot plant for testing oxy-fuel combustion in the 'Schwarze Pumpe' industrial zone on the Brandenburg Saxony border. Other electricity producers such as RWE and E.ON have also announced their...

Implementing an acceptable evolution scenario

Starting from the present level of consumption (considering 2006 as the reference year), the BAU ('Business as usual') scenario, is obtained by extrapolating the present trends. According to this scenario, world energy consumption will double within less than fifty years, from 11.7Gtoe year in 2006 to 22.7Gtoe year in 2050. The major share (80 ) is still supplied by fossil fuels coal represents 30 of the primary energy supply, oil 32 and natural gas 22 . The corresponding CO2 emissions rise from 27.9 Gt year in 2006 to 52 Gt year in 2050. This scenario is clearly intolerable. However, it is not the most pessimistic one. - Improving the energy efficiency results by 2050 in reducing by 44 the annual energy consumption (when compared with the BAU scenario), from a consumption of 22.7Gtoe year to a consumption of 12.6 Gtoe year. - Coal consumption is divided by three as compared with the BAU scenario and represents only 16 of the total energy consumption in the Alt scenario.

Integration with Process

This can be the ultimate opportunity for enhanced energy efficiency and least environmental impact. Instead of two separate roles, core and support, the fully integrated design approach can reveal result levels never reached before. How Small - scale integration has been happening recently but what are the odds Many barriers appear, like management and accountability, who is in charge of what and who is responsible for what. The biggest one should be complexity. The more integrated are the core business and utilities, the more energy efficiency potentially can be achieved, but in this set, no more easy decisions. The degree of integration has to be set even before design. It is a business decision, tightly attached to company values and vision.

Reaching the required goals

---Energy efficiency Energy consumption (Gtoe year) tons per year are plotted versus the energy consumption expressed in billions of tons of oil equivalent per year. - Improving energy efficiency leads by 2050 to a reduction of around 23 Gt year of CO2 emissions (moving from point F1 to point F2).

Task capture of C02 out of a mixture of C02 H20 N2

Combustion in the power plant It is expected that these three technologies will be implemented in the first generation of coal-fired power plants with carbon capture. Each has its specific properties and merits, so that parallel development of all three technologies is a sensible policy. In addition, building on these basic technologies, solutions are being investigated for the more distant future with a view to reducing the energy and cost outlays associated with carbon capture. In its basic concept, post-combustion C02 scrubbing is the simplest and most obvious technology for capturing the carbon from the power-plant process (see Figure 11.3). The idea is to target the flue-gas stream directly. Here, the C02 is selectively extracted from the waste-gas stream using a special scrubbing solution downstream of the power station. This is done in an absorber. The waste gas freed from the C02 is released into the atmosphere, while the scrubbing solution loaded with the C02 is further...

Ensuring technological progress

During a first phase, improving energy efficiency is the main solution for reducing CO2 emissions before 2030 and to respond to the limitation of the oil and gas production. It will be a key factor for the next two decades. In the longer term, by 2030 to 2050, more radical technological changes are expected namely fourth generation nuclear power plants, large scale photovoltaic electricity generation, distributed energy storage systems and use of hydrogen as an energy vector. Increased energy efficiency nuclear power plants New catalysts and separation membranes will be used for developing industrial processes that are more energy-efficient and more environmentally friendly. Such technologies are already widely used by the car manufacturing industry on board electronics control the engine running and can minimise the fuel consumption. On-line optimisation systems can also be used to minimise energy consumption in industry and housing.

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