Energy efficiency (EE) is widely viewed as an important element of economic and environmental policy. However, there is little agreement on specific EE goals and the strategies to attain them. The lack of consensus stems from the fact that there are differing views about the meaning of EE and the means of implementing it. How much one will actually benefit from EE depends on how one approaches the issue. Also, the success in EE improvements depends on how well various actors help each other, and how well their actions are integrated. The present chapter aims to explain the nature and purpose of EE as well as its relation to various actors of the society and the environment. The chapter also presents a short overview of the current debate on EE in which the EE gap and the rebound effects are the main constitutes.
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