In recent years, the main focus of the global environment has been on global warming and the related policy responses. The exploitation of fossil fuels not only has contributed to human well-being, but has also led to increasing environmental pressure on the earth. Currently, climate change induced by humans is one of the most important environmental problems related to the use of fossil fuels. The emission of CO2, the most important of the greenhouse gases, is a direct result of the combustion of fossil fuels.
One policy response of particular interest is EE. This can be used to reduce the level of CO2 in the atmosphere by reducing the amount of fossil fuels combusted and therefore the amount of CO2 released. Together with renewable energy, transportation and forestry projects, EE is widely viewed as one of the most accessible and cost-effective opportunities to mitigate climate change.
The potential scale of efforts to improve efficiency levels depends on the outcome of a global negotiation process, in which governments meet regularly to discuss issues concerning climate change. Many proposals have been discussed but there is still uncertainty regarding the implementation of policy measures, particularly at the international level. This uncertainty has so far stemmed the flow of public and private capital into climate-friendly technologies. As a result, the boom in EE activities has not materialized so far, despite the recognized potential for cost-effective projects.
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