Learn How To Survive Energy Crisis

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Energy security and energy shocks

Energy policy has been profoundly influenced by the 'oil shocks' of the 1970s and the national energy crises that followed. There are increasing fears that a similar but potentially more severe and longer-lasting shock may occur if global oil production goes into decline. However, while adequate security in fuel supply is vital, the extent and nature of threats to security has frequently been misjudged and even misrepresented. The need for energy security or 'energy independence' is often talked up for purposes of special pleading in favour of expensive or otherwise unattractive technology or policy options. Energy security has risen and fallen on national and international political agendas and may do so again. Climate change, however, is an issue that will not go away and will set the context for energy policy for decades to come.

E2 Geopolitics and Global Energy Security

Understanding of energy security relies on geographical diversification of energy supplies, sources and stability of prices. Since the extraction and burning of coal started, energy is powering the world economy. Depletion of stocks and global energy supplies make countries vulnerable to disruptive events, no matter where they take place. The first oil crisis of 1973 or the invasion of Iraq in 2003 exemplified the consequences for nations when energy supply became uncertain. Therefore, national security must be interpreted in terms of economic vulnerability, which is linked to dependence on energy. Although energy security focuses on energy vulnerability rather than on energy imports, there may be economic and political incentives to reduce energy imports. As fears about the stability of the world's energy resources grow, policy makers may integrate these security concerns into the climate change policies. If policy makers promise incentives for domestic energy sources and discourage...

The Energy Crisis

Energy is very often wasted, and it is frequently urged that the energy crisis can be solved by increasing the efficiency of energy use and eliminating waste. This is discussed in the next section and in the following sections the possible alternative energy sources are assessed according to the five criteria proposed above.

Global Warming Where Is the Cure

As the world proceeds into the 21st century, international dimensions of environmental problems have become more apparent and increasingly important. Globalization of the economy, emergence of worldwide communication and information networks, and rapid development of bio- and nanotechnologies all have important consequences for the environment. One may expect that by the middle of this century about 10 billion people will be placing stresses on the world's natural resources which will lead to further environmental problems (Dincer 2003). In fact, future environmental problems arise not only from the exhaustion of natural resources but also from how those resources are consumed. New technologies can and will lessen damaging environmental impacts if they are employed wisely, guided by the market system under some main pillars, such as better efficiency, better cost-effectiveness, better use of energy resources, better environment, better energy security, and better sustainable...

International Energy Agency

The International Energy Agency (IEA), an autonomous agency, was established in November 1974. Its primary mandate was - and is - two-fold to promote energy security amongst its member countries through collective response to physical disruptions in oil supply, and provide authoritative research and analysis on ways to ensure reliable, affordable and clean energy for its 28 member countries and beyond. The IEA carries out a comprehensive programme of energy co-operation among its member countries, each of which is obliged to hold oil stocks equivalent to 90 days of its net imports. The Agency's aims include the following objectives

Alliance to save energy

The alliance's mission is to promote energy efficiency worldwide to achieve a healthier economy, a cleaner environment and greater energy security. Its corporate statement describes the ASE as leading worldwide energy-efficiency initiatives in research, policy advocacy, education, technology deployment, and communications that impact all sectors of the economy. Leaders from academia, business, government, and other fields serve on the board of directors. Republican Senator Charles Percy and Democratic Senator, former Vice President, and presidential nominee Hubert Humphrey founded the ASE in 1977. In the same year, U.S. President Jimmy Carter also established the Department of Energy. Since its founding, the ASE has been a bipartisan endeavor. It had to face the energy crisis of the late 1970s, when the United States recognized its oil dependency and the economic importance of energy. In those years, the Iranian Revolution generated a second, severe oil crisis worldwide (the first had...

Benefits And Drawbacks

Driving the strong political backing for ethanol are energy security concerns, agricultural interests, and environmentalists. In the future, a drive for better efficiency could force ethanol to compete with electric cars and fuel cells, as well as gasoline. The trend for fuel seems to be shifting toward ethanol. In India, the

The Geopolitics of Energy

It would be short-sighted of countries to focus only on their own energy security without due regard for the geopolitical and environmental risks and impacts. The invasion of Iraq in 2003 was seen by many as an expression of the mindset that oil equals security. According to these theorists, the geopolitical strategy of the United States (US) is based on the perceived need to maintain access to oil reserves not only in the Persian Gulf but also around the world. The challenges of energy security and sustainability are daunting and require a paradigm shift to reduce energy consumption levels. This calls

Earlier energy crises

In retrospect many of the policy proposals made at this time were an overreaction, based on very high forecasts of future demand and over-optimistic assessments of the economic viability of new technologies. Project Independence was rather quickly shelved and the European energy objectives were not underpinned by adequate policy commitments. In Europe, the 40 per cent target was met, but only as a result of stagnant energy demand and the development of North Sea oil and gas reserves. US and European investment in nuclear power was stimulated, but less than 70GW of capacity was built. The urgency of the energy crisis dissipated fairly rapidly, and was only marginally rekindled when oil prices again rose sharply at the end of the 1970s. However some countries did take the opportunity to bring about major changes in their energy mixes - most notably France and Denmark.

Regional governance A better fit

(ii) In Asia, the members of the Association of South East Asian Nations, for example, have been cooperating on energy policy issues for more than 20 years, building on an initial agreement for sharing oil in supply emergencies to a series of agreements to develop energy infrastructure and foster energy investments. Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) is a broader forum embracing countries in the Pacific Basin North and South American states and Australia-New Zealand, as well as those from Asia. It has a looser but broadly liberal commitment to energy matters the main aim has been closer trade and investment links. In recent years, however, it has also addressed energy security and sustainable development matters.

Motivations Leading To Gas Hydrate Production

As previously discussed in this paper, significant if not insurmountable technical issues need to be resolved before gas hydrate can be counted as a viable option for future supplies of natural gas. In most cases, the viability of an energy resource is based almost solely on economics. It is important to note, however, that in some cases the viability of a particular hydrocarbon resource can be controlled by unique local economic and non-technical factors. For example, countries with little domestic energy production usually pay considerably more for their energy needs since they rely more on imported hydrocarbons, which often come with additional tariffs and transportation expenses. Energy security is often a concern to resource poor countries, which in comparison to energy rich countries will often invest more money in relatively expensive unconventional domestic energy resources. In some cases the uniqueness of a particular location, such as distance to a conventional energy...

When the wells run dry

The troubling matter here is that while the countries of the North are securing energy resources, African countries are seeking to increase oil-related revenues. The fact that few resources are being spent on energy security efforts points to an ominous future. It is a scary thought to picture Nigeria as an energy-importing nation in the near future, with no prior arrangements on how to manage that scenario. This challenge is real for many African countries. One of the best cases of forward thinking can be seen in President Wade of Senegal's orchestration of the so-called green OPEC - a body of non-oil-producing African countries inaugurated in 2006. The green OPEC is made up of countries without crude oil, but who are poised to become exporters of agro-fuels possibly by converting cultivatable lands into fuel crop farms.

Renewable energy policy and climate policy interactions

This paper explores the relationships between climate policy and renewable energy policy instruments. It shows that, even when CO2 emissions are appropriately priced, specific incentives for supporting the early deployment of renewable energy technologies are justified by the steep learning curves of nascent technologies. This early investment reduces costs in the longer term and makes renewable energy affordable when it needs to be deployed on a very large scale to fully contribute to climate-change mitigation and energy security. The paper also reveals that both CO2 prices and the measures to deploy renewable electricity create wealth transfers between electric utilities and their customers, although in opposite directions. This may be important when considering the political economy of the interactions between CO2 pricing and renewable energy support in the future.

Department of Energy uS

Department of Energy is to advance the national, economic, and energy security of the United States to promote scientific and technological innovation in support of that mission and to ensure the environmental cleanup of the national nuclear weapons complex. To achieve this mission, the Department of Energy (DOE) has outlined five strategic themes energy security, nuclear security, scientific discovery and innovation, environmental responsibility, and management excellence.

Future sources of oil

In September 2008, the European Union (EU) energy commissioner, Andris Piebalgs, argued that the Western energy firms would need to look to the Arctic region in order to acquire energy security. 'You even need to go into hostile environments' such as the Arctic, he claimed. 'You can't say this is a sanctuary because it will not

An Arctic resource war

Even if the Arctic does contain the large reserves that the USGS has claimed and these deposits are commercially recoverable, then they need to be seen from the proper perspective. At an EU summit on energy security, held in September 2008, one expert pointed out that an additional 90 billion barrels of oil is 'only' equivalent to 3 years of global production and would do nothing to address the widely anticipated 'supply crunch' in 2015-20. 'Those who think we are going to find a solution to our oil problem in the Arctic are clearly wrong', concluded Willy De Backer. He added that 'it's not the first time that the new energy bonanza story has come up' since, only a decade or so before, 'everyone thought the Caspian was going to provide the miracle solution'.45

Urgency of the actions to be undertaken

The urgency of the measures to be taken is therefore evident. Given the contribution of fossil energies to CO2 emissions, it is vital to initiate without delay the energy transition which will allow us to prevent a major energy crisis as well as an irreversible climatic catastrophe. Strong action by the Public Authorities is therefore necessary, firmly backed by public opinion in the various countries.

Renewable Energy Technologies

Photovoltaic power is also widely viewed as cost competitive, like wind power. As energy from the Sun is free and the cost of the photovoltaic cells is dropping, a solar energy boom is likely in the near future. Solar energy is good for many grid-connected and building-integrated uses. They are widely used for off-grid applications ranging from telecommunications, to village power in remote and rural areas. In general, solar energy is of two types solar thermal and solar electric. Solar thermal technologies provide heat and hot water for residential, commercial, and industrial end uses. Solar electric technologies or concentrating solar power (CSP) creates heat to produce steam and or electricity. At present, producing a few kilowatts to hundreds of megawatts of electricity is feasible through commercial solar electric technologies, but a hybrid application of the technology with fossil fuel would be more economically competitive.

The new energy debate after 2000

The second development concerned the idea of energy security of supply. Governments have always taken a keen interest in securing energy supply, but this has not always implied active policy intervention. During the 1985-2000 period of low oil and gas prices, reflecting a surplus of oil and gas supply, security seemed assured by the operation of markets and governments had minimal need to intervene. After 2000 oil and gas prices became much less stable and on occasion very high. Meanwhile there were major power blackouts in the US and Italy, and in the UK a relatively low-key blockade of oil depots by disgruntled truck drivers seemed to threaten shortages in UK forecourts. At the same time UK oil and gas production peaked and began to fall, with the UK due to become a net importer, first of natural gas and then of oil by 2010.

Policymaking 20003 Earning consent for change

While taking energy security as an important objective, the PIU report concluded that threats to security were, in practice, limited and that reliance on the operation of the energy markets would take care of security problems (PIU, 2002). It argued that competitive energy suppliers would have a strong self-interest in security and would behave in ways that would ensure sufficient security without major new public policy intervention. This left climate change as the dominant public policy objective in energy policymaking and the Energy Review made a range of detailed policy recommendations in pursuit of emission reductions. The recommendations majored on a need to pursue energy savings more vigorously, and to continue to support the diffusion of renewable energy. It also pointed to the need for much more radical action in the area of transport, where carbon emissions were rising rapidly. It was lukewarm on the role of nuclear power, which was in any case in a dormant state both in the...

Introduction and Overview

Renewables provide other benefits as well. For one, they increase the diversity of energy supplies, relieving pressure on fossil fuel supplies and oil prices, and increasing energy security. In the long term, renewables are one of the few sustainable energy supply options available. Eventually they will be essential for replacing diminishing fossil fuel resources, especially given the inequitable distribution of those natural resources.

Policymaking 20037 Security trumps legitimacy

The May 2007 White Paper meanwhile set out a 'framework for action' to address the challenges of reducing carbon emissions, managing risks of oil import dependence and helping set the right incentives for companies to invest, especially in electricity generation. This was exactly what the 2003 White Paper had done, explicitly for the first two issues above, and implicitly for the third. Differently from the 2003 White Paper, the 2007 version laid primary stress on international strategy, and the need to tackle climate change and energy security jointly (DTI, 2007a, pp. 4-5). It emphasised the importance of a Europe-wide commitment to competitive markets, attempts to influence the wider international community towards a post-Kyoto consensus from 2012, and gave preeminence in domestic policy to the internationally negotiated EU ETS. Finally, in January 2008, government was able to publish a White Paper on nuclear power policy (DBERR, 2008). This contained no surprises on the subject of...

Technology Description and Status

Photovoltaic (PV) cells are based on semiconductors and convert light directly into electricity. They are usually encapsulated within modules with a power up to several hundred watts that can be combined into larger power arrays. These systems are connected to consumers or to the grid via electronics. Solar-photovoltaic technologies include off-grid and on-grid applications. PV systems are made either from crystalline semiconductor modules or from thin films, and PV technologies are characterized by their modularity. Installed grid-connected capacity is mostly in Japan, Germany and the United States. These three countries account for about 85 of global PV capacity. PV is often perceived as economic only in niche applications, such as traffic lights, weather stations and stand-alone systems for isolated buildings. Stand-alone or off-grid PV systems are particularly well suited for remote areas.

Costs and Potential for Cost Reductions

Average installation costs are about USD 5-USD 9 W for building-integrated, grid-connected PV systems. Costs vary according to the maturity of the local market and specific conditions. For off-grid systems, investment costs depend on the type of application and the climate. System prices in the off-grid sector up to 1 kW vary considerably from USD 10-USD 18 W. Off-grid systems greater than 1 kW show slightly less variation and lower prices. This wide range is

Cost of renewable energy

Some forms of renewable energy, like hydroelectricity and biomass, have been cost-competitive for many years in certain applications and provide a substantial energy supply worldwide. Others, like passive solar building design, are cost competitive, but haven't yet overcome all the market factors that currently preclude their widespread use. Technologies like wind and geothermal are currently cost competitive at their best resource sites, but need further improvements and support to reach their full market potential. A few, like photovoltaics, have identified niche off-grid electric markets that the industry is building to the point where it can competitively address retail power markets. Still others, like ethanol from biomass, are evolving both in the laboratory and the marketplace to the point where they will be competitive without price supports. Table 5.1 provides a summary of the general renewable energy technologies and their economics.

Reconciling urgency and legitimacy

Policymaking for energy in the UK between 2000 and 2003 showed recognition of the urgency of the climate change agenda, and the need for radical, legitimate policy responses. During this period policy processes started to engage broadly with both public and stakeholders and a degree of political legitimacy was built around the 2003 White Paper. From 2005 onwards, however, there were changes in both policy substance and process. The change was less marked in substance though it did involve giving greater weight to energy security and to centralised and large-scale technology options like nuclear power. But the change in process was much more marked, and took a potentially dangerous turn in terms of reduced legitimacy. Security of supply was elevated as a policy priority and a risky technological solution was advanced in an authoritarian way as the solution, with damaging consequences for the likelihood that policy could work in practice. After the Sullivan verdict minimal procedural...

Governmental Perspective

This perspective looks at the net costs of the EE project as a resource option based on the total costs to the government and the customer. Energy efficiency issues that also need to be looked at from the government perspective include national development goals, social equity, national priorities, self-reliance, energy security, policy making as well as institution forming. Energy security is an important issue that has to be tackled by the government. Over the last three decades, we have witnessed events that have transformed the outlook of the global oil market. The first oil crisis of 1973, the invasion of Kuwait by Iraq and the recent war on Iraq have resulted in sharp fluctuations in energy markets and reawakened concerns about energy security both for oil producers and consumers. Ensuring oil supply means being prepared to mitigate any short-term disruption of supply, and foster investment into a sustainable long-term supply. Mitigating short-term disruptions to oil supply...

Global Environment Facility GEF

Renewable energy is one of the most promising substitutes for fossil fuels, which are responsible for the largest share of greenhouse gas emissions. GEF helps countries remove barriers to developing markets for renewable energies wherever cost-effective. GEF funds projects which promote the use of renewable energy, such as small hydropower generating plants, and the development of cost-effective solar voltaic cells. Such opportunities can be found in on-grid and off-grid situations, as well as in heating for industrial and other applications using renewable energy sources.

Regional Status and Potential of Renewables to Address Climate Change

Fossil fuel subsidies continue to be substantial. In spite of recent progress in removing subsidies, a recent IEA study of eight of the largest developing countries confirmed that pervasive under-pricing of fossil fuels still exists, amounting to an average of 20 below market levels (IEA, 1999, p. 9). In China, taxes and subsidies that discriminate against renewables in favor of fossil fuels are seen as the most important single constraint on the move towards healthy rural energy markets. (UNDP ESMAP, 1998, p. 6). Ironically, the rural areas served by electrification programs, which is the sector for which renewable energy is most promising, is also the sector where fossil fuel subsidies are most persistent. These subsidies manifest themselves as electricity tariffs for grid power that send the wrong price signals, making off-grid renewable energy systems appear less competitive (Taylor, 1998).

The future Hopeful or hopeless

The multilateral system also needs to be strengthened. Increasingly, challenges have global dimensions (e.g. the food crisis, climate change, the financial crisis, the energy crisis) and require increasing international cooperation. Multilateral systems also need to be supported to increase collaboration among different actors, which are specialized in specific areas. Water resources issues are cross-cutting and need to be addressed from that perspective. United Nations Water represents an innovative and flexible mechanism to promote such collaboration within the UN system and with key partners.

Box 72 The Dutch energy transition process

Evident that the traditional forecasting approach has not been rejected in the UK. The DTI (2007a, p. 113) states, 'energy suppliers need to be able to anticipate changes in energy needs sufficiently far in advance to provide the necessary supply capacity and delivery infrastructure. Energy consumers need access to reliable and credible information about future trends in energy, so they can make informed decisions about the terms under which they purchase energy supplies'. It further argues that it is 'possible under certain assumptions to reduce the UK's carbon emissions by 60 by 2050 without new nuclear power stations. However, if we were to plan on this basis, we would be in danger of not meeting our policy goals' (relating to energy security and GHG emission reductions) and ' o ur modelling indicates that reducing GHG emissions without nuclear would be more expensive' (DTI, 2007a, pp. 16-7). Forecasts and modelling, with unclear underlying assumptions, appear to have been used...

International Efforts on Energy Efficiency

The link between EE and pollution reduction has been discussed repeatedly in international treaties. The reasons for international support of EE are not limited to air pollution reduction. They also include a desire to reduce dependence on foreign oil supplies via using less imported fuels8 and sustainable economic development. The Council of Europe recognized in 1970 that 'improvements of the thermal insulation of buildings, ( ) results in a significant reduction of fuel consumption'.9 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Environmental Guidelines from 1974 added that '( ) establishment of regulations and higher standards for improved thermal insulation of new buildings' was a useful method to increase efficiency.10 In addition, '( ) more efficient use of fuels was useful to reduce air pollution'.11 These views have subsequently been memorialized in the 1988 Sophia Protocol,12 the 1994 Sulphur Protocol13 and the 1999 Gothenburg Protocol14 under which the...

The Development And Climate Paradigm

Most development targets address climate change concerns effectively, if indirectly. For instance, poverty reduction and elimination of hunger would enhance the adaptive capacity of the poor due to improved food security and health, while also enhancing their resilience to cope with risks from uncertain and extreme events. Increased use of hydro and renewable energy resources would reduce GHG and local pollutant emissions, enhance energy security, and provide access to water resources from additional hydro projects. Many actions for climate adaptation and mitigation can then be integrated with projects that are already under way - and could, alternatively, be designed as incremental or adjunct to projects that are justified for economic development purposes (Heller & Shukla, 2003). Climate-friendly development and national sustainable development goals, like conservation of resources and enhancements of human capacity, are complementary. In fact, cascading effects of development...

Russia and the Arctic

Hydrocarbon reserves, and the use of these reserves is a guarantee of Russia's overall energy security.' This means that the region 'has a strategic significance for our country' and 'resolving long-term tasks of developing the state, and its competitiveness on the global market, is directly tied to its development'. Medvedev urged speedy passage of a law to determine Russia's southern Arctic zone and added that the 'marking of the external border of the continental shelf is a long-term goal'. He continued by arguing that 'our first and main task is to turn the Arctic into a resource base for Russia in the twenty-first century (and) using these resources will guarantee energy security for Russia as a whole'.6

Governance of network transformation

As long as the focus is on (short-term) efficiency, the regulator's role is relatively clear and uncontroversial. With the goal of network transformation, however, matters necessarily become more political. Ultimately the key questions then revolve around what kind of electricity system society wants, taking into consideration trade-offs with other policy objectives such as climate change or energy security (SEG, 2007b). These are essentially political questions, making it more difficult to separate policy and regulation (or the definition of objectives and their delivery), requiring more iteration between the two.

Politics policy and regulation

In conclusion, changes in perspective and policy approaches are necessary to achieve a high share of DG, and to fully exploit its potential advantages. To reduce carbon emissions and increase energy security, policymakers and regulators need to address transformation of whole electricity infrastructures, rather than focusing only on the connection of individual distributed power plants to the existing electricity system.

Physical characteristics

As less than 1500 mm, dry between 1500 mm and 2500 mm, intermediate more than 2500 mm, wet. Defining an area as dry, while annual rainfall is still 1500 mm, must be considered in the context that reference evapotranspiration is about 1700 mm. Especially during the inter-monsoon periods, when rainfall is limited, severe water shortages can occur, resulting in reduced, or no yield, insufficient supply of drinking water and energy crisis. Temperatures in Walawe are constant, with temperatures in the lowlands ranging from 25 to 28 C and in the upper elevations from 23 to 25 C throughout the year.

United Nations Security Council

The two debates on environment in 2007 were the first but probably will not be the last. The G77 and some NGOs such as Stakeholder Forum argued that the issue of climate and energy security should first be debated within the Economic and Social Council and its subsidiary bodies, and then the UN General Assembly, before it is taken to the Security Council.

International Institutions

Often banks and private investors wait for a signal from the international financial community, the World Bank and others, before getting involved in large projects. There is a wide recognition, in international institutions, of the climate change and energy security issues. There is a clear rational appreciation ofthe value of carbon-free energy. But within these organizations

The Problems of Democratic Societies

We trust the airlines whenever we fly, we trust the shops to sell us food without harmful substances and so on. But an article in the Economist (10.07.2007) said that 'the polls reveal a striking and pervasive public distrust of official information about nuclear power. Only scientists employed by universities, a few television-news programmes and environmental groups are trusted to tell the truth. Government scientists and cabinet Ministers are widely disbelieved'. This statement is over-optimistic, and it would be unwise to trust all television programmes and environmental groups. University scientists are not always trusted. My own experience is limited, but I recall giving a talk on the energy crisis and nuclear power to some children in a State school. They sat in sullen silence during the talk, and afterwards I enquired how they found the talk and was told 'They did not believe a word of it'. On another occasion I gave essentially the same...

The role of the United Nations Climate Convention and other bodies

Achieving the objective of the convention would therefore have a direct bearing on climate and energy security. Steps to achieve the convention's aim will have an impact upon the pace and degree of climate change in the coming decades. Such steps imply a dramatic change in any 'business-as-usual' scenarios envisaged for energy production and consumption in the coming decades. They will require serious political and financial commitments4 (Stern et al, 2006). Whether these outcomes can be achieved in Copenhagen remains to be seen. Whatever happens in Copenhagen, though, the negotiating path will certainly not end there. But what is clear is that Copenhagen presents a genuine opportunity to make a dramatic breakthrough on climate change. A well-crafted agreement would provide a huge incentive for clean development and spur major changes in investment flows that could have an impact both upon the pace and extent of climate change, and upon the capacity of countries and communities to...

The lure of the Arctic

Energy security There are two reasons in particular why Washington would want to find 'energy security' in the years ahead. One is that America's own indigenous sources of supply have reached a plateau, and in the case of Alaska in particular, are fast dwindling.19 Output from the vast site at Prudhoe Bay reached a height in the late 1980s but has since been declining steadily and now stands at less than one-third of its peak output. This steady deterioration has happened even though a number of new Alaskan fields, such as the Northstar and Alpine reservoirs, have started to come on stream, and is likely to become even worse because the chances of any really significant new discoveries being made - not just in Alaska but anywhere on the American mainland - are considered to be remote. Overall, American domestic production of crude oil is expected to increase slightly in the years ahead, buttressed mainly by discoveries in the Gulf of Mexico, before levelling off and then starting to...

The Asian Development Bank ADB

Moreover, the latest draft of the new energy strategy squarely states that ADB operations in the energy sector should be realigned to 'meeting energy security and transition to a low carbon economy' (ADB, 2008). Recommendations include expanding their energy efficiency investments support for renewable sources of electricity technical assistance for the needed regulatory reforms as well as assisting borrowers to gain access to the Kyoto Protocol's Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) revenue to cover additional costs of renewable energy installations. And the ADB strategy recommends continuing to avoid funding oil and gas exploratory projects. However, the strategy states that coal 'will remain a major source of energy for electricity and heat' and therefore the ADB will 'actively promote' its extraction and use (ADB, 2007, p24).

Role Of Transportation In Driving Climate Change

A large proportion of GHG emissions can be attributed to transportation, specifically from the burning of gasoline, diesel, and other fuels derived from petroleum. In fact, the transportation sector is responsible for 70 percent of U.S. petroleum use, which exceeds the percentage of oil that is imported (Davis et al., 2008). Reducing transportation's dependence on petroleum, much of it imported from politically unstable regions of the world, is one of the most direct connections between the issues of climate change, energy security, and national security (see Chapter 16). Transportation's use of petroleum fuels also leads to emissions of particulate matter, sulfur dioxide (which forms sulfate aerosols and ultimately leads to acid rain), and substances that are precursors to photochemical smog (nitrogen oxides NOx and carbon monoxide CO ) and to various forms of pollution in freshwater and marine systems. Hence, efforts to reduce GHG emissions in the transportation sector will also...

European Union Response to the Challenge

In today's world of accelerating globalization there are many challenges that nations simply cannot address working on their own fighting terrorism, pandemics such as bird flu, poverty in Africa, nuclear proliferation, financial and economic crisis, energy security and climate change. These are all areas There are a number of reasons for taking such an independent commitment. First, this strengthens our leadership in the international context by showing determination for action. Second, it will benefit our economy in terms of increased energy security and public health. Third, it gives a welcome signal to the market that the emissions trading system will continue after 2012. Last, but not least, it enhances predictability and encourages investment in clean technologies.

Global Energy Solutions

Rapidly cutting domestic GHG emissions is the most pressing energy policy challenge in industrialised countries, but it is global emissions, including those from developing countries, that will determine the extent of future climate change. Agreement on global action to cut emissions has so far been difficult to achieve, largely because of US intransigence at Federal level, but also because developing country governments are not willing to see their growth constrained so as to solve a problem caused by the rich world. Rich countries must therefore first demonstrate that high incomes, low emissions and energy security are simultaneously achievable goals. Successful technical and social innovations could then be selected and adapted to local circumstances in the developing world. Significant opportunities can also be expected for emerging economies to export low carbon technologies in to OECD markets.

The potential for global technical fixes

As the agreement reached at Bali under the UNFCCC in December 2007 showed, there is now global recognition of all nations' common interest in stabilising the climate. Fortunately many technologies are available that can simultaneously improve energy security and reduce emissions. Some can also help tackle local environmental problems such as air pollution or deforestation (IPCC, 2007b).

Conclusions Transitions Governance and Appraisal

Around the world energy policy is becoming more politically heated. An interrelated set of factors explains this new scientific findings about climate change and its likely consequences rising energy prices controversy about nuclear ambitions fears about the security of fossil fuel supplies relating to short-term geopolitical instabilities rapid demand growth in countries such as China and India the prospect of declining total world oil production, and its consequences for fossil fuel prices and energy security in coming decades and international tensions around all of these issues. In wealthy democracies energy markets are increasingly competitive, which tends to drive down costs and fuel economic growth, and can contribute to energy security. However, in liberalised markets governments are less able to direct change in their energy systems, becoming more reliant on networks of civil servants, businesses, civil society organisations and individuals to achieve policy goals. Moreover,...

Research on development of analytical frameworks for evaluating tradeoffs and avoiding unintended consequences

Ing trade-offs and synergies among efforts to limit the magnitude of climate change and efforts to adapt to climate change. There are many possible co-benefits associated with some of the technologies and strategies discussed in this chapter and the companion reports (NRC, 2010a,c). For example, along with the benefits of reducing GHG emissions and climate change, use of almost every energy efficiency or lower-emissions energy alternative will yield co-benefits in terms of reduced air pollution and associated health impacts. Some approaches may also yield co-benefits through increasing national energy security or conserving water resources. On the other hand, negative effects or interactions are also possible. For example, energy efficiency programs could disadvantage the poor or marginalized communities if they are not carefully included, and biofuels programs or large-scale deployment of other renewable energy sources could lead to food insecurity, loss of biological diversity,...

Energy technology transitions

Nuclear power lacks CCGT's flexibility and low costs, and the selection environment has evidently been poor for nuclear newbuild for some time. However, this appears to be changing in the US and UK where the hope for finding a few large-scale technical fixes to climate change and energy security problems remains very beguiling. Nuclear power is one such technology, offering low carbon electricity in a potentially secure way. However, public sector investment in unlikely in liberalised markets (and has been ruled out in the UK), and the risks to private investors remain prohibitively high. Moreover, there remains substantial and passionate political resistance to nuclear power in many countries on a variety of grounds.

Trade union responses to climate change and human insecurity

The United Nations Security Council debate occurred at a time when many of the world's trade unions recognized that climate change and energy security must form part of their historical mission to ensure that development yields personal and community benefits to the working class. In response to calls for action issued by the ITUC, TUAC and several Global Union federations, a Trade Union Working Group on Climate Change has been formed, which now enjoys official status at negotiations under the UNFCCC.

Member Biographical Sketches

Brown has authored more than 250 publications including a recently published book on Energy and American Society Thirteen Myths and a forthcoming book, Climate Change and Energy Security. Dr. Brown has been an expert witness in hearings before Committees of both the U.S. House of Representatives and the U.S. Senate, and she participates on several National Academies Boards and Committees. Dr. Brown has a Ph.D. in Geography from the Ohio State University, a master's degree in Resource Planning from the University of Massachusetts and is a Certified Energy Manager.

Military Operations

The QDR focused on four specific issues where reform is imperative security assistance, defense acquisition, the defense industrial base, and energy security and climate change. It stated the need for incorporating geostrategic and operational energy considerations into force planning, requirements development, and acquisition processes.

The Contribution of the Churches

The role of the Churches in the energy debate has been considered in an article by Kenneth Fernando of Sri Lanka in a booklet 'Energy for my neighbour Perspectives from Asia' edited by Janos Pasztor and published by the World Council of Churches in 1981. He begins by recognising the reality of the energy crisis and the limited influence of the Churches. Nevertheless he maintains that the Churches must use whatever influence they have not only by discussing the ethical issues but by actions that use its source of power, 'the power of the people, the power of suffering and the power of God at work in the world'. He concludes his article with some practical suggestions. We must rethink our lifestyle so as to use less energy and no more than our fair share of the earth's resources. 'The Churches cannot remain neutral in the face of the energy crisis. They must take sides with the poor, since they are the worst affected Protests against injustice generally are not likely to be of much...

Products and services

While 'green consumerism' may have a limited role to play, it seems highly unlikely that it will trigger the transformational change in goods and services that is needed to deliver climate and energy security The bulk of responsibility lies, therefore, with companies to ensure that all their products and services are transformed so that they contribute to climate and energy security or are removed from the marketplace when this is not possible. In doing so, there are real opportunities to go beyond narrow concerns about the 'offer' of an individual product and, instead, build a deeper and longer relationship with the consumer in which they develop trust that a certain company or brand is working with them, across all their product lines, to address these issues. As Alan Knight, a member of the UK Sustainable Development Commission, has said 'Customers do not want to be overwhelmed with choice and are happy that choice is limited to only greener options' (Knight, 2007). Every company...

Hydrate Resource Methane Fuel and a Gas Based Economy

ENERGY SECURITY What constitutes energy security Every industrial society is fundamentally based on the uninterrupted supply of sufficient fuel at acceptable prices. The maintenance of dependable fuel supplies therefore underpins economic and political stability of industrial countries and constitutes a basic security issue. The issue of energy security is often expressed as a matter of price, but there is a deeper concern. Industrial countries such as the U.S., which was once energy independent, has now become dependant upon imported energy. However, energy security to the U.S., which prints the world's only petrocurrency, consists of supporting the present economic framework and maintaining the ability to purchase petroleum, albeit at a price that may be somewhat higher than could be obtained in a completely free market. Other countries such as those represented by highly industrialized Japan, which never had significant indigenous energy sources but has sufficient currency reserves...

Stimulating infrastructure and technology change

Energy security is in part a question of developing new infrastructure such as fuel storage and electricity generation capacity. Secure energy services are vital for people's well-being, for economic growth and for social stability. It is for precisely these reasons that it is (but should not be) used rhetorically or as a cover for other political agendas. Energy security does not have to be understood as security of fossil fuel imports. Relying on one or a few large-scale technologies, suppliers or fuel depots is inherently insecure.

Reforming institutions and markets

This is less precarious than it appears. Fossil fuels are of no value to exporting countries' governments unless they can sell into international markets their market insecurity balances our energy insecurity. This may be an unattractive equation, but experience has shown the dangers and costs involved in trying to change it using military force or technical fixes such as nuclear power. Policies and diplomacy to improve energy security should proceed from an assumption that national markets for oil, gas and coal will diminish rapidly. Cutting overall demand and meeting as much as possible of the remainder using wind, sun and wave power must be the medium-term goal.

Energy Data Manager Statistician

The International Energy Agency, based in Paris, acts as energy policy advisor to 27 member countries in their effort to ensure reliable, affordable and clean energy for their citizens. Founded during the oil crisis of 1973-74, the IEA's initial role was to co-ordinate measures in times of oil supply emergencies. As energy markets have changed, so has the IEA. Its mandate has broadened to incorporate the Three E's of balanced energy policy making energy security, economic development and environmental protection. Current work focuses on climate change policies, market reform, energy technology collaboration and outreach to the rest of the world, especially major consumers and producers of energy like China, India, Russia and the OPEC countries.

Development vs Environment

In the interest of global sustainability and moving on to environmentally more desirable paths, the concept of economic and social development should be the top priority for developing countries. This means that the issue of climate change must be viewed through the lens of human development. The challenge for such a type of development is the practical question of choosing sustainable pathways that provide food and energy security, employment opportunities and at the same time minimize environmental impacts. Instead of focusing attention on policies to reduce climate change risks, the starting point should be development issues that are vital the economic development and how this can be achieved in an environment-friendly manner. This means that environmental policies should be derived from development priorities. This needs a conceptual framework that places sustainable human development before climate change by reversing the existing framework. For that one has to find out...

Energy policy in context

The market-based approach has triumphed but the context appears to be shifting yet again, this time in ways that may not be so easy to reconcile with liberalisation. The central element of this shift is the re-emergence of energy security as a priority. Crude oil prices increased from an average of US 24 barrel in 2001 to US 130 barrel in early 2008, driven by steady economic growth in the industrialised world, the rapid industrialisation of India and China, falling production from nations outside the Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) and the erosion of spare capacity in the Middle East. Competition for resources and international power games involving energy are long-standing causes of national insecurities. In the early twenty-first century, energy security fears appear more acute than at any time since the 1970s and are being compounded by fears about the potential effects of climate change. For example, there are growing concerns about water shortages and...

Steam Network Optimization by Utilizing Biomass and Solar Energy Sources in an Oil Refinery

In an oil refinery, steam is available at different pressures and temperatures. Some processes use steam while others generate steam. There are interactions between the processes and the utility system via steam use and generation. There are also interactions between the processes on the site through the steam mains (Smith, 2005). Heat demands of the plant for generating steam are generally extremely high. The steam is usually supplied by two sources, the boiler station and the power plant which are generally fed by fossil fuels. However, using these conventional fuels is not a long-term and proper option due to the importance of global warming problem and energy crisis. Several policies are proposed to limit net GHG emissions. A key example is the Kyoto Protocol. Each country's emissions target must be achieved by the period 2008-2012. For example, industrialized countries have committed to cut their combined emissions to 5 below 1990 levels by 2008-2012. The three main gases are...

Perspectives in Nuclear Energy

Nuclear power does not contribute to greenhouse gas emissions. With the development of a new generation of fast reactors, nuclear energy would become a truly sustainable energy source. One of the important conclusions of the European Union Green Paper Towards a European strategy for the energy security supply 3 , published in 2000, was that the goal is no longer to replace nuclear energy, but to develop new energy technologies to satisfy the continuous increase in energy demand.

Lessons from the UK on Urgency and Legitimacy in Energy Policymaking

After a brief overview of energy policymaking in the UK prior to 2000 (Section 5.1 see also Chapter 4), the focus is on the post-2000 period. Section 5.2 describes the way in which policymaking in the first few years of the century began to open up in a quite promising way, setting the scene for legitimate, radical policies to reduce GHG emissions. It then relates how processes were subsequently closed down around a revised agenda, one emphasising energy security and large-scale technologies including nuclear power. The chapter then reaches conclusions in Section 5.3 for governments seeking to take urgent, radical action to tackle climate change.

Homestead Agroforestry A System for Multiple Products

Image Homestead Agroforestry

(Sharifullah et al. 1992 Miah et al. 2002). This situation arises due to overwhelming population pressure and poor forest resources. The forest resources, which are inadequate to meet the national demand of forest products, are still shrinking at an alarming rate of 3.3 annually, and consequently severely threatening energy security and quality of life (Miah et al. 2002). Fortunately, tree resources grown in the homestead are acting as a prime source of fuel wood and timber in addition to supply of fruits and other products. In fact, homestead has been supplying about 80-90 of total requirement of fuel wood and timber for a long time (FAO 1982 Haq 1986 Abedin and Quddus 1990) and its contribution is increasing as the supply of forest products are decreasing. Over 80 of traded wood produced in Bangladesh are derived from homesteads and other plantings on village land production. This is estimated to amount to over 5 million cubic meter or Tk 20 million taka (US 1 Tk 60) per year - the...

The Demand and Supply in India

Thus, coal will continue to energize the Indian power sector and its role cannot be understated. Use of India's significant domestic coal resources for power generation would enhance energy security - which is an emerging priority in the country. India's domestic oil and natural gas reserves are minimal (about 0.5 of world reserves), and over three-quarters of India's petroleum consumption was met through imports in 2004-2005. Based on the Planning Commission 25 scenarios, coal-based capacity of utility power plants is likely to be in the range of 200400 GW in 2030, up from about 68 GW in 2005.

Asia Pacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate

Change, energy security and air pollution in a way that encourages economic development and reduces poverty. The APPCDC represents countries that account for around half the world's emissions, energy use, GDP and population, and is an important initiative that engages the key GHG emitting countries in the Asia-Pacific region. Through the APPCDC, business, government and researchers have agreed to work together to focus on the development, deployment and transfer of cleaner, more efficient technologies, which can achieve sustainable economic, social and environmental development. The APPCDC builds on the foundation of existing bilateral and multilateral initiatives complements.

Rationale for EE Intervention

Often it is assumed that consumers behave in an economically rational way in view of a cost effective EE measure. However, the evaluation of the cost effectiveness of an EE measure depends largely on the discount rate used, though there is no agreement on what represents an appropriate discount rate. In some cases the discount rates applied to EE improvements are the same as those used by utilities for energy supply investments. In some cases, premiums are included to take into account resource depletion, energy security, environmental and other considerations in order to create 'societal cost effectiveness' measures. Most consumers make investment decisions without direct reference to discount rates and discounted capital flows.

Raphael Sauter and Dierk Bauknecht

An increased share of distributed electricity generation could contribute substantially to lower carbon emissions, simultaneously improving energy security. Despite increasing interest in distributed generation (DG) its deployment has been slow so far in many industrialised countries, with some notable exceptions such as Denmark and the Netherlands. In most industrialised countries DG is seen, at best, as a complement to frameworks of centralised electricity generation. Low growth rates for DG are the consequence. This chapter argues that substantially increasing the share of DG requires a fundamental change in how we conceive the electricity system, guided by a more encompassing 'system transformation' perspective that recognises DG as a real alternative to centralised electricity generation. This perspective draws attention to necessary changes in the electricity infrastructure, including its technical and institutional components. The electricity network is one important part of...

Funding energy efficiency earmarked environmental taxes versus system public benefit charges

Energy efficiency can improve energy security, reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, promote economic growth and create jobs. However, market failures and other barriers have caused a pattern of underinvestment in energy efficiency, forcing governments to undertake policy interventions. Funding for these policy interventions may come from several sources, including government budgets, earmarked environmental taxes, and charges on network-delivered energy (gas and electricity).

Solar Energy Industries Association SEIA

Rhone Resch is the president of SEIA. Together with his organization, he applauded the U.S. Congress and President George W. Bush for producing the strongest national policy for solar power since the 1980s. The solar tax benefits in the 2005 Energy Bill were acclaimed by SEIA as an important victory and as the measure necessary to allow the solar industry to meet the challenge of playing a significant role in supplying energy for the United States. To Resch, the United States has the best solar resources in the industrialized world, and by choosing solar energy, Americans can make a real contribution to their country's energy independence Installing solar energy on your roof is one of the most meaningful steps an individual can take to reduce our reliance on foreign sources of energy and help declare energy independence. Now solar comes with a more affordable price tag, and more consumers will take a step towards energy independence by choosing solar power. That means cleaner air,...

Increasing Energy Efficiency and CO2 Mitigation in Buildings

The IPCC 2 discusses a number of co-benefits as potential outcomes of a reduced building energy use scenario including reduction in local regional air pollution, improved health (discussed in the following section), quality of life and comfort, improved productivity, employment creation, improved social welfare and poverty alleviation and energy security. Such benefits are useful incentives in regions where direct benefits may not be realized. Many of these benefits may be just as important as the anticipated side effects of global climate change.

Renewable Energy In The World Today

While many of the above renewable energy projects are designed for large-scale power generation for the electricity grid, several of these technologies are also very well-suited to small off-grid applications, especially in remote areas. For example, ''solar homes systems'' - consisting

Potential Impacts of Climate Change on Turkish Water Resources A Review

Abstract Water resources are mainly controlled by the climate conditions. Global warming will therefore have evolving impacts on water resources and poses important challenges for sustainable development. Studies are rapidly emerging with focus on potential implications of climate change on Turkish water resources. These studies can be grouped into two major fields (1) Studies investigating the degree of climate change reflected in the past observed hydro-meteorological records, and (2) studies investigating potential future impacts of climate change on water resources. In this paper, we present a summary of the current knowledge in the area of climate change impacts on Turkish water resources with emphasis on the two major fields listed above. Overall conclusion of the review is that climate change will put additional pressure on already stressed water resources in Turkey. The credibility of water management scenarios - whether focused on maintaining ecosystems or on food and energy...

Box 11 Climate change mitigation in developing countries

Many developing countries share the OECD's concern to find ways to cut GHG emissions, but also face pressing problems relating to access to energy supplies, local environmental pollution and energy security. Energy efficiency measures and low carbon energy sources can be used in ways that both cut emissions and help meet these other policy priorities. Realising this interdependence is vital to the success of any future international framework to tackle climate change. Nuclear power can be attractive to developing countries for both energy security and environmental reasons. China has decided to invest in 40GW of nuclear capacity by 2020 and India is also actively cooperating with the US on nuclear power. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is seen as a less attractive technology at present, since its

Renewable Energy A Definition

It is clear therefore, that in due time renewable energies1 will dominate the world's energy supply system, due to their inherent advantages such as mitigation of climate change, generation of employment and reduction of poverty, as well as increased energy security and supply. Renewable energy technologies are well suited to respond to the limitations of current energy patterns and contribute to the further modernisation of the energy sector. increasing energy needs, thereby ensuring a sustainable security of supply. Furthermore, renewable energy sources can help improve the competitiveness of industries and have a positive impact on regional development and employment. Renewable energy technologies are suitable for off-grid services, serving those in remote areas of the world without having to build or extend expensive and complicated grid infrastructure.

Mr Ramiro Ramirez Environmental Policy Analyst OPEC

Policies and measures currently adopted by many industrialised countries rely on a suit of measures in which oil taxation is prominent as it is singled out from other fuels with higher carbon content (such as coal). The argument being that there are other policy concerns such as energy security which weigh heavily and therefore justify the adoption of this discriminatory policy toward oil as well as subsidies for other energy sources. Inci

Box 72 Environmental migration

Policies for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are expected to affect the energy sector in many countries. For instance, Kainuma et al. (2004) compared a global reference scenario with six different GHG reduction scenarios. In the reference scenario under which emissions continue to grow, the use of coal increases from 18 in 2000 to 48 in 2100. In aggressive mitigation scenarios, the world's final energy demand drops to nearly one-half of that in the reference scenario in 2100, mainly associated with reducing coal use. Kuik (2003) has found a trade-off between economic efficiency, energy security and carbon dependency for the EU.

Commerciality Of Hydrate

Japan will almost certainly continue to develop its hydrate resources and produce gas as soon as it can. Some displacement of imported gas supplies could take place within a 4 to 5 year time frame, with significant displacement of imported supplies in a 5 to 10 year time frame. The aim of energy independence is a future goal. India and other countries may also choose to develop their hydrate resources for their own monetary, economic, political, or environmental reasons because any methane they recover will not involve large-scale outflow of petrocurrency. In North America and elsewhere where gas can be transported by pipeline from conventional gas fields, commercial development of hydrate is probably further in the future (Chapters 10, 26), on the order of 25 to 50 years. Energy security or development of hydrate to displace other fuels such as coal and oil on an environmental basis, however, may prove to be more influential - perhaps because of government regulation -than a simple...

Energy Governance The Challenges of Sustainability

In the UK, for example, energy governance is moving out of a period essentially characterised as running or 'sweating' the energy system inherited at privatisation (Helm, 2004a), and the system now requires significant reinvestment. This juncture, compounded by rising energy prices, climate concerns, and newfound fears over energy security, provides an opportunity for a new approach to energy governance. The challenge confronting policymakers is to think imaginatively about how new governance arrangements can facilitate the large-scale investments and behavioural changes needed for a transition to a radically different, sustainable energy system. This will inevitably involve many losers, as well as creating winners, and is therefore highly political.

Afterword Sustainable Energy The Challenge of Choice

What are our possible energy futures Which directions are open to us, and which closed How should we prioritise the challenges posed by climate change, nuclear risk, toxic pollution and landscape impact How to reconcile these with economic competitiveness, energy security, poverty reduction and democratic choice Which mixes of technologies and policies offer the best balance of pros and cons Whose knowledges, values and judgements should we best trust as a guide When and how should we decide In democratic societies with liberalised markets, how can deliberate, urgent, radical change come about How might the perceived legitimacy of such changes affect long-term success

Objections and concerns

For many developing countries, the decision by the UK presidency of the Security Council to hold a debate on climate and energy security held undertones of an inequitable response by the industrialized nations, such as the US and other global powers, most responsible for climate change. (Dodds and Sherman, 2007)

A discourse perspective

In 2006, for example, the UK government argued that the nation needs a new generation of nuclear electricity stations to tackle climate change and provide energy security (DTI, 2006c). This assertion reflects the knowledge claims of the nuclear industry as well as some scientists. Nuclear energy's proponents portray it as harnessing science for society's benefit, providing secure, low carbon electricity. Its opponents portray it as socially and environmentally damaging, emphasising the authoritarianism and secretiveness that have attended its use, the risks of radiation releases, sabotage and weapons proliferation, or simply arguing that it is expensive and unnecessary. It is therefore difficult to see the policy decision to build new nuclear power stations in the UK as the result of a simple, rational, linear policy process. A more accurate interpretation would be to see it as a value- or interest-based decision to accept the knowledge claims of certain actors. As demonstrated in...

Politics

Eileen Claussen (President of the Pew Center on Global Climate Change) brings the discussion up to date with a brief''insider's look'' at responses to global climate change since the Kyoto Protocol. In her view, the United States has been both a driver and a drag on the process.'' To move beyond the resulting impasses, Claussen provides five keys to success.'' First, we must forge a response that is global, as well as effective, fair, and economically efficient. Second, we need to think and act both short- and long-term. The long-term vision is bound to include climate-friendly energy sources, which increase energy security as well as economic growth. Third, industry must be a partner by voluntarily reducing emissions and by advocating for strong government action. It is industry that will develop alternative energy sources and ultimately deliver on government requirements and goals, so they have to be involved eventually, and the sooner, the better. Fourth, government must set real...

Energy Conservation

It is frequently argued that we could solve the energy crisis simply by using energy more efficiently. At present we are very wasteful. We leave lights on in empty rooms, heat parts of our houses that are not in use, and allow the rooms in use to be too hot, so that most of the heat escapes through the windows and walls. In many warm countries air conditioners are over-used in summer so that the rooms become too cold. Much larger amounts of energy are wasted by inefficient processes in factories. Huge amounts of energy are spent on unnecessary journeys Many of these energy-saving measures are being implemented but nevertheless the increasing world population and the average rise in living standards are causing the world consumption of energy to rise linearly with time at the rate in 2004 of about 4.3 per year. Thus while energy conservation is extremely important and should be encouraged by all practicable means it will not by itself solve the energy crisis. It is therefore still...

EU energy policy

There now appears to be a serious commitment to developing such a policy. The issue of an EU energy policy has been back on the agenda since 2005. The challenge of tackling climate change has clearly been one of the drivers pushing the issue to the forefront. At the same time, however, worries over the sources of future energy supplies have also driven the debate. The trigger for this security worry was the limited disruption of gas supplies to Western Europe as a result of the dispute between Russia and Ukraine at the start of 2006. While not the direct show of strength by Russia which was reported in much of the media, the events did feed a sense of vulnerability about increasing reliance on a small range of suppliers as the EU became more and more dependent on energy imports. On current trends the EU's dependence on net imports for 50 per cent of its needs would rise to 70 per cent by 2030. Taken together, addressing climate change and energy security provided an apparently strong...

The case for nuclear

The UK has just concluded a consultation on the role of nuclear power within that government's energy strategy. Their consultation document is illustrative of increasing government initiatives to articulate the case for considering nuclear power in the context of tackling climate change and energy security issues. Their preliminary view is that new nuclear power stations could make an important contribution. And although it is the sovereign right of each country in the European Union to make its own energy supply decisions, the European Commission has recognized the need to have a platform for debate among researchers, industry and environment ministers.

Security

Yergin (1988, p. 111) defines the objective of energy security as follows 'to assure adequate, reliable supplies of energy at reasonable prices and in ways that do not jeopardize major national values and objectives'. Maintaining strategic fuel reserves and diversifying domestic and imported fuel sources are obvious means to this end. However, many other initiatives, including military intervention, are partially motivated by (and justified in terms of) the need for security of energy supply. Andrews (2005, p. 24) writes 'Energy security persists as a policy driver of great rhetorical and practical importance. For a century now, importing nations have done whatever it takes to ensure a continuing flow of energy to fuel their economies'. In the UK, with the depletion of North Sea oil and gas and the UK becoming a net importer of both, the energy security agenda has been moved to the centre ground in the government's energy policy rhetoric. It is instructive to examine the discursive...

Facing up to coal

The politics of coal have already been alluded to briefly but it is worth emphasizing its significance once again. Coal is a cheap, widely available, high energy-density fuel. Since the Industrial Revolution, it has provided the energy that has driven industry in the West. Indeed, coal is arguably the fount of Western prosperity. Today it continues to provide both energy and energy security in many Western countries and particularly the USA where, as noted, it accounts for over 50 per cent of electricity generation.

Energy Efficiency

ENERGY EFFICIENCY provides an immediate answer to an energy crisis because it can significantly reduce energy consumption, which further decreases greenhouse gas emissions. For example, during the first energy crisis during the 1970s, popular energy-efficiency measures included fuel-efficient cars and well-insulated buildings. With climate change considerations, the technological solutions to improve energy efficiency are much more diverse and more widely supported than the solutions from the end of the 20th century. To evaluate the performance of energy-efficient devices, products, and engineeringsystem solutions, an index called energy efficiency can be used. The definition of energy efficiency as an index depends on the thermodynamic system under consideration. In general, energy efficiency is defined as a desired output divided by a required input, and it represents a ratio of energy or work output to energy or work input for a particular ther-modynamic system.

Conclusions

Meanwhile, however, global capitalism has continued as normal. Neither the development of ideas about climate change, nor the novel sorts of policy developed to deal with it, have yet had any significant impact on emissions levels. Global carbon emissions continue to grow, largely in line with global GDP. Many states and businesses still take no account of climate change in their routine planning, and assume that the future will look largely like the past, that is, based fundamentally on growth in fossil fuel consumption. Some states seem to have started on a path of decarbonisation, but even they have only been able to do so stimulated by external accidents. In the UK, for example, often taken as a leader in climate policy, emissions have gone down principally because of the 'dash for gas' in the early 1990s, triggered by electricity privatisation and the Thatcher government's determination to break the power of the unions by taking on the striking coal miners. Another leader,...

Fusion Reactors

When a design has been found that produces a net gain in energy, then it will be time to design a fusion reactor for full-scale energy generation. Experience with fission reactors shows that it takes about twenty years from the establishment of technical viability of a reactor system to its large-scale implementation for power production. Fusion power is so important in the long run that research should be pushed forward rapidly, but until fusion power stations are actually in operation it is unrealistic to include them in any discussions of the energy crisis.

Green Design

Finally, green technologies are becoming more available in all communities. Wind turbines and photovoltaic cells are more common on peoples' properties and allow individuals to live off-grid or to net-meter excess energy. Many home textiles such as carpets and furniture coverings emit less volatile organic compounds (VOCs) than before. Water-saving fixtures like faucets, toilets, and showerheads are becoming the standard. The installation of these products, however, may be more expensive than conventional products. This development is slowly changing as the market turns toward homes that value human and ecosystem health.

The United Nations

For instance, when the UN Security Council in April 2007 decided to take up the issue of climate change and energy security, 135 developing countries quickly united to protest what they saw as a hypocritical effort by some of the world's worst emitters, past and present, to wrest control of the climate change issue from the General Assembly.90 This could foreshadow much more acrimonious clashes between large and small emitters and even between developed nations with differing emissions policies.

Strategic importance

In other words, controlling the Northwest Passage, or at least stopping someone else from doing so, is likely to be a key strategic objective for any country concerned about its national security. Above all, American strategists will harbour no illusions about who might prise control over, or establish a presence in, some section of the Passage if they don't China. Since the late 1990s or so, the Chinese have adopted what Western defence experts call the 'String of Pearls' strategy, which involves establishing a political or military presence along the sea routes that lead to the oil-producing states of the Middle East. Each of these 'pearls' represents a particular presence, the purpose of which is to provide 'energy security' by guarding the movement of oil tankers in the event of any disruption. So at various sites, such as Gwadar in Pakistan, Chittagong in Bangladesh and Woody Island east of Vietnam, the Chinese have been busily building deep-water ports, shipping container...

Jeffrey Harti

Skyrocketing energy prices and concerns about energy security and climate change have sparked interest in alternatives to transport systems run on fossil fuels. In recent years, electric vehicles have emerged as the preferred alternative thanks to the environmental benefits of zero tailpipe emissions and the vehicles' ability to take power directly from the power grid. (See Table.)

Nonenergy Benefits

Non-energy benefits are important drivers of EE. They accrue, for example, at the national level via improved competitiveness, energy security or job creation. From a consumer perspective, often it is the non-energy benefit that motivates decisions to adopt energy efficient measures. The benefits

How much diversity

While maximising diversity sounds like an inherently good idea, there are several reasons why choices need to be made about which low carbon technologies are supported more than others within a technology portfolio. The first of these concerns the type of diversity that is seen as desirable. In government policy documents, diversity is often associated with energy security (DTI, 2007a, p. 5). Diverse routes for imported fuels, such as oil and gas, and diverse sources of energy (for example, solar and biomass heating as well as gas heating in homes) are both likely to be good for security. But diversity is about more than just having a lot of different options in an electricity-generating mix or a low carbon innovation portfolio.

Chapter Three

Many of today's conveniences can be tied back to the production, conversion, distribution, and consumption of energy. From the electricity that powers air conditioning and the electronic age to the gasoline that fuels motor vehicles to the natural gas that heats many people's homes, the production and use of energy is the result of government policies and decisions by individuals and firms throughout the nation. These policies and the decisions by which they are implemented affect a broad range of issues, including energy security, climate change, and economic growth. During the workshops, participants discussed many of these issues. They also focused on the trade-offs and need for compromises in energy policy, the role of technology in meeting national energy goals, and the need to improve the development and deployment of existing and new technologies. gas, and increased dependence on foreign energy sources, thereby creating new concerns over the nation's energy security.

Natural gas

Russia's other challenge is not just to keep producing natural gas at minimum cost but to keep it flowing to its customers at the most profitable price. Every producer of gas wants to achieve 'security of demand', keeping its customers happy so that they don't start looking around for alternative suppliers, while at the same time charging as much as they reasonably can from them. If they keep their customers, then gas producers not only have a guaranteed source of income but a form of strategic leverage as well. So for a country that is as obsessed with its national security as Russia, gas pipelines offer a very effective insurance policy against foreign attack threaten us and you will freeze. This is why Moscow's official energy policy states that 'energy security is the most important element in Russia's national security'.13

Living Off The Grid

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