Water is the universal solvent and always has some chemicals, gases or minerals dissolved in it, and the so-called 'pure water' actually doesn't exist. As a matter of fact, its characteristic taste is provided by the presence of these contaminants. All these impurities bring, eventually, some undesirable additional property to water, like minerals as calcium or magnesium that cause hardness; iron, that gives it color; organic materials as biomass or oil can increase potential presence of microorganisms; atmospheric gases, specially oxygen and carbonic oxide, increase its corrosive power etc.
Independent of its state of purity, water is one of the most active and aggressive solvents of nature. In so called meantime, almost everything will dissolve in water to some extent, depending on the quantity of material exposed, until solution saturation, when no higher concentration of solids in water can be reached. This solvent property allied with its extremely high capacity to absorb and transport heat, without significant temperature variations, and as mentioned in Section 10.2.1 on steam, the ability to convert energy from heat-to-power, makes water an indispensable utility.
Water is used for many purposes in processes, like equipment cooling, maintenance cleaning, scrubbing gases for air pollution control and as the steam cycle working fluid. To accomplish all these objectives, despite its corrosive behavior, especially to steel structures, it must be properly and continuously supplied and conditioned to use. The usual source for industrial water is the public water distribution system or a captive ground fount, like a lake or a river. Growing environmental restrictions and increasing costs for wastewater disposal pushes a trend to recycle water effluents, using it as make-up for cooling tower systems. Concerning the conditioning, this means water treatment and it must comply with usage required conditions.
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Your Alternative Fuel Solution for Saving Money, Reducing Oil Dependency, and Helping the Planet. Ethanol is an alternative to gasoline. The use of ethanol has been demonstrated to reduce greenhouse emissions slightly as compared to gasoline. Through this ebook, you are going to learn what you will need to know why choosing an alternative fuel may benefit you and your future.