Voltage and Current

Power distribution efficiency depends critically on voltage and current, since power is the product of current and voltage. Energy losses by the Joule effect are due to wiring resistance times the squared current (R x I2), so to distribute the maximum power with least losses, it is better to use the highest voltage possible.

Opportunities for efficiency are proper wiring selection to minimize energy losses. If long feeder runs are needed, the use of larger wire sizes can yield energy savings and be economically justifiable. Concerning magnetic losses on transformers, the best option is to distribute high voltage and just reduce it in a transformer close to the point of use. Proper selection of electrical equipment, guaranteeing uniform voltages at each process, reduces the number of transformers required. During operation, setting transformer taps to optimum load and keeping constant track of transformer loads, eventually eliminating unnecessary ones by regrouping charges locally. Disconnecting primary power of transformers that are not serving any active loads momentarily also reduces magnetic losses.

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