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Figure 12.5 Nominal prices of tropic oils and crude oil per ton [57]. 12.2.2.5 Biomass and Residues

Biomass can generally be subdivided into carbohydrates, lignin and others (fats, proteins, terpenes, etc.). They are produced by nature in a volume of 180 bn tons per year with carbohydrates (e.g. sugar, starch) playing a major role (75%) and lignin accounting for about a fifth of these renewable resources. Only 7bn tons (as dry matter) ofthis biomass are being used for agricultural products, thereofthe majority (95%) are consumed for nutritional purposes. These values might be compared with an overall 10 bn tons of fossil fuels mainly used in energy production [10].

Currently biomass use provides 13% of global final energy demand. World ethanol production for transport fuel tripled to more than 52 bn liters between 2000 and 2007, while biodiesel expanded eleven-fold to almost 11 bn liters. Policies have essentially triggered the development of biofuel demand by targets, blending quotas and mandates which have been enacted in more than 17 countries. Investment into bio fuels production capacity exceeded $4bn worldwide in 2007 and seems to be growing rapidly. Global use of biofuels is expected to double from 2007 to 2017. It is estimated that by then the share of biomass will increase to 14% of the current fossil energy use totaling 388 EJ in 2008 [11]. The major part should, however, be derived from organic waste and residues rather than from food-crops. This includes for example, biogas derived from manure and ethanol derived from agricultural and forest residues, as well as biodiesel from wood (biomass to liquid BtL, based on experimental plants). Plenty of reasons like higher GHG savings, better use of arable land and the mitigation of the food-vs. -fuel debate can be found. Advanced biofuels, such as cellulosic biofuels derived from timber processing residues, straw or corn stover, may be able to improve the resource efficiency of biofuels. A good example is cane-based bagasse as the residue from sugar production. In Brazil 73 Mtons of this residue fiber material from the processing of 5 bn tons of cane are effectively used for providing energy in the fermentation process or, increasingly, to produce electric energy for the grid. Apart from incineration, biodegradable waste can be treated by anaerobic digestion or by composting. Lignin is a widely named candidate as chemical feedstock but to date attractive large-scale uses as raw material are still scarce.

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