Participative Workshops and Specific Techniques

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Workshops for energy conservation are very efficient in raising awareness, increasing knowledge, and building strong intentions to implement energy saving measure (see also -41]- . They should be moderated through well-trained energy awareness planning committee members, who promote the project, answer questions, and make sure that every participant is being involved and contributes. Again, it is vital that all employees are enabled to give input about energy conservation so that all possibilities of reducing the use are regarded and their support is gained. Therefore the size of individual workshops should not exceed 20 persons and contain employees from same departments, productions lines and backgrounds. Homogeneous groups have the advantage that for example, machines, processes, and the language are somewhat similar, simplifying communication and discussion. Heterogeneous groups have the advantage that its members might have new and totally different thoughts and ideas about subjects they are not familiar with. At the same time interdisciplinary workshops lead to confusion and misunderstandings by its participants if subjects are too specific and complex. Nevertheless, the aim is to consider the individual thoughts, opinions, and ideas. Techniques that can be used to facilitate discussions with creative and productive outputs are:

• Brainstorming (thoughts, ideas, and solutions to energy use).

• Mind maps (diagram to visualize and structuralize thoughts and ideas).

• Energy thieves (tasks, processes, behaviors which require much energy).

• Old hats (declaration of undesired behaviors and development of alternatives).

• Transfer walk (walk through the facility and identification of saving potentials).

• Letter to or contract with oneself (catalog of measures and commitment to implement).

Brainstorming, a creative technique designed to generate a large number of ideas, is a very valuable way of approaching the problem of energy conservation. The participants of workshops will be encouraged by moderators to spill out as many thoughts and ideas on how to reduce the energy use at their workplace, in their department or the entire organization. The first spill-out round can be even more effective if it is done anonymously by writing on paper individually, because fewer inhibitions occur due to social dynamics. According to behavior theory (see Section 3.2.3), behaviors or comments such as unpopular ideas, which will not be enforced, or even worse punished, by others through negative remarks, decrease in its likelihood of occurring again. But especially these presumably unorthodox or silly solutions to energy use, which would be held back in front of coworkers, should explicitly be encouraged because later during discussion others might be able to use the ideas, adjust them or make sense of it. This would happen in the second round, when all written statements are being reviewed and discussed by the entire group to further generate feasible solutions.

Since it can be difficult to start with brainstorming about the question 'how to reduce energy use? [ the opposite can help. The right question could be reversed to ask for the best way to waste energy. Answers could be: e.g. having a certain machine run without producing, moving parts unnecessarily often, and leaving the computer or the light on when out of the office. This opens up established thinking and behavior structures and gives an opportunity to develop alternatives. Other techniques to identify energy waste are 'energy thieves' and 'old hats'. Tasks, processes, and structures as well as behavior and habits which use unnecessary amounts of energy are searched and identified as thieves or respectively labeled as old hats. The thieves (e.g., standby modus) should be brought into prison or old hats (e.g., leaving the light on while out of the office) need to be disposed of, meaning undesired processes and behavior have to be replaced with sought- after alternatives. In summary, any of the above measures includes the collection of processes and behavior that increase energy levels, which in return can foster ideas and interventions for energy efficiency and environmental sustainability. Since a chemical plant is a complex system and energy saving measures are often not trivial the inclusion of know-how of internal or external experts and consultants is often useful.

The technique of mind mapping can visualize and bring a structure into the information of any brainstorming. A 'mind map [ is a diagram used to represent words, ideas, tasks, or other items linked to and arranged around a central key word or idea, in this case energy (see Figure 3.5).

The elements of the energy mind map are organized intuitively according to their importance to the concept, and are classified into groups, branches, or areas, with the aim of representing semantic or other connections.

Figure 3.5 Example energy mind map.

The advantage of this radial, graphical, and non- linear organization is that it interrupts the prioritizing of concepts typically associated with hierarchies presented with linear visual cues. Further, this approach towards brainstorming encourages users to name and connect concepts without a tendency to begin within a particular conceptual framework, allowing a higher level of creativity when gathering ideas and information.

A - transfer walk- can be used as a brainstorming technique itself as well as to verify results from prior brainstorming or mind mapping within the same workshop or as a separate event. By physically walking through a specific department or production line, two coworkers discuss saving potentials and develop suggestions for possible solutions. Their task is to produce concrete ideas and plans, how to change and implement certain processes and behaviors to reduce energy use. They could come up with advancements on equipment, which increase the efficiency, activities that should not be executed anymore, as well as new or restructured behavior patterns which conserve energy. After the pairs have walked through their workspace and made a list of suggestions, the results will be reported and discussed within the workshop to incorporate them into a specific focus group energy change document.

The energy change documents are fixed and provide commitment to transfer the suggestions on energy conservation, comparable with a letter to or contract with oneself. They should contain a catalog of measures and specific instructions about what to do to meet the desired outcomes. After its development, the energy change document will be aligned with the results of the energy audit to become the blueprint guideline for concrete measures such as the following goabsetting talks because workshops alone most often do not change behavior [41].

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Tap Directly Into Your Creative Mind... And Easily Access YOUR Million-Dollar Ideas Ideas are the lifeblood of success... and the best ideas originate with brainstorming. Brainstorming can help you successfully fix any problem, build any business, generate any plan, or develop any story. But the problem is that most people have no clue how to effectively brainstorm - either by themselves or with groups. You can waste a lot of time coming up with old, boring ideas that won't work... and the whole time you actually believe that you are brainstorming.

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