Main Energy Consumers

In the last section it was mentioned that the consultant will try to concentrate on the relevant utilities. Equally it is necessary to identify the main energy consumers and find measures to reduce the energy consumption of this equipment. There are different ways to find energy intensive equipment:

1) The main consumers are in many cases equipped with measuring devices. Big evaporators or compressors have dedicated meters for steam or electricity. The availability of data depends strongly on the instrumentation level of the plant. The consultant will analyze the process and instrumentation diagram (P&ID) of the plant in order to identify the energy relevant metering points.

2) If measurements are not available, a thermodynamic simulation of the process (see Section 4.3.5) will quantify the energy consumption of each piece of equipment. The simulation of the process needs some effort, but it gives valuable additional information to be used during the idea generation phase (see Section 4.4). In many cases a thermodynamic model of the plant is available and can be used after actualization.

3) Additionally there is of course the experience and the process know how of the plant manager and of the operators which we use to identify the main energy consuming equipment.

4) The last information source is the design specification of the plant. The expected energy consumption is normally part of this documentation.

The energy consumption of the plant is then depicted in a graph similar to that shown in Figure 4.6 ) Here the consumption of 31 bar steam is chosen as an example.

In this case there are seven main consumers of 31 bar steam. It is recommended that concentration should be on these consumers in the next projects steps, with respect to steam consumption.

The assignment of energy consumption to the equipment will be repeated for the other utilities. Another example is shown in Figure 4.7) Here the electricity consumption for different consumers is shown in a different visualization.

The depiction of utility consumption shows in an easy and plausible way the energy relevant apparatus and machines to be analyzed in detail.

An important result is the quantification of the ) recovery rate ) ) that means the sum of the energy consumption assigned to all equipment in relation to the total energy consumption. In some cases we find a significant discrepancy here, shown in Figure 4.6 as 'not identified)) If the recovery rate is less than 90% the reason

Consumers Analysis Steam 31 bara

45000 40000 35000 So 30000

0 25000

1 20000

O 15000 10000 5000 0

Equipment name

Figure 4.6 Example of 31 bar steam consumption per equipment.

Consumers Analysis Steam 31 bara

Figure 4.7 Example of electricity consumption per consumer.

Cooling -20°C

FGDF04 (measured) 11.9% 1894 IVlWIh O CG0DFng6 ^.9.10.11.13.19 (measured) \—i Cooling 7°C

/JfGDF 1.2.3.5.20.21 (measured) Q VAC Ventilators (estimation) OTherecos (measured) 14% 2229 MWh O Filling & packaging lines (estimation) ^QGranulators (estimation) -j—k liquid pumps

'1 all site: approx. 250 kW (estimation) Vacuum pumps (estimation) =Q Dryers (estimation)

Washing machine (estimation) 3Q Illumination (estimation)

Compressors press. air (estimation) CD Purified water unit (estimation) other (remaining delta)

Figure 4.7 Example of electricity consumption per consumer.

for that deviance must be clarified. Possible reasons can be false measurements or unknown or underestimated consumers like trace heating. These unknown or underestimated consumers often are subject to saving ideas.

I n total the analysis of the energy consumption per utility and per piece of equipment and its prioritization will typically result in the identification of 50 to 100 main consumers. These consumers now will be analyzed more in detail. The tool for a detailed analysis is the equipment check, which will be described in Section 4.4.3i This stepwise procedure guarantees focused project execution and minimizes the effort and the costs on the energy savings project.

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