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Power Efficiency Guide

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absorption

- carbon dioxide 396 accredited independent entity (AIE)

accumulation factor (AF) 165 ACM (approved consolidated methodology) 74 advanced process control (APC) 232, 265

aero-derivative engine 286 air cooler 288ff. air cooler fan improvement 288f.

air cooler fin type 290 air cooling 335, 362 allocation

- benchmark based 84

- installation based 84 allowance

- auctioning 84

AM (approved methodology) 74

amine 398 amino acid 430

- salt 398 ammonia 398 analysis 126 ancillary system 373ff. Annex-1 country 72 applicability criteria 74 area efficiency method 214 area integration 218

area target area target setting 199 attitude model 92 auctioning of allowances 84 axial compressor 274 axial fan 281

b backpressure turbine 207 barge

- transport 324 Bayer 28

- climate check 155

- goal and concept 156

- realization and result 156 behavioral theory 93 benchmark based allocation 84 benchmarking 81, 153

best efficiency point (BEP) 275 bioacrylic acid 432 biocatalysis

- emollient ester 434 biochar 437 biodiesel 425 biodiesel production 174

- flow sheet 176 bioethanol 422ff. bioethylene 431 biofuel 425 biomass 425

- use 436 biorefinery 435

biotechnological industrial process 429

- field of application 429

- market 429 blower 229 blowing system 335 boiler 298, 369 boiler water 358f. Boudouard equilibrium 404 brainstorming session 133 building 139

building block 432 Brayton cycle 366ff. burner design 292

Managing CO2 Emissions in the Chemical Industry. Edited by Leimkuhler © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim ISBN: 978-3-527-32659-4

calculation tool 42 calorific value 436 cap-and-trade 59 capital cost 293

carbon capture and storage (CCS) 23, 71, 391ff.

- economy parameter 415

- efficiency parameter 413ff.

- technological implementation 396 carbon compliance 63

carbon dioxide 33, 48, 74

- abatement curve 38

- absorption/desorption 396

- analysis method 33ff.

- emission 6ff.

- equivalent (CO2e) 3ff.

- reduction 1ff.

- reduction project 123ff.

- storage 410

- transport 407

carbon dioxide avoidance cost 415 carbon dioxide balance 33ff.

- emission certificate 38

carbon dioxide saving limitation 435 carbon dioxide scrubbing 396ff.

- chemical industry 405

carbon dioxide-neutral production 419ff. carbon footprint 33ff., 126

- cradle-to-grave 51

carbon monoxide shift reaction 402 carbon offsetting Carbon offsetting 71 carbon pricing 57ff.

- chemical production chain 64

- industry exposure 63 carbon storage 394 carbon tax 61 carbonate looping 406 carbonation 412 catalytic reforming 318 centrifugal compressor 272 centrifugal fan 278 centrifugal pump 226ff., 275 certified emission reduction (CER) 18,

change process

- individual 96

- organizational 96 chemical breakdown 436 chemical industry

- allocation 84

- carbon dioxide emission 439

- importance 399

chemical inherent safety 166 chemical looping combustion (CLC) 406

chemical process design

- sustainable 159

chemical process industry 4, 63

- CO2 emission 11

- CO2 reduction 1ff.

- energy consumption 11

- energy efficiency 14

- energy trend 1ff. chemical process route

- nitrogen functionality 438 chemical processing 427

- yields and efficiency 427 chemical production chain 64

- carbon pricing 64 chemical structure retention 437 chemicals

- functionalized 438

- oils 433 chiller system 225 chlor-alkali electrolysis 43f. circulation pump 301

clean development mechanism (CDM) 17f., 38

- project 73 climate change

- adaptation 20

- economics 59

- global framework 82 Climate Footprint® 126 climate policy 59 closed-path (CP) 161ff. cogeneration 364 coking 319

column

- design improvement 234ff.

- feed preheating 235

- indirect coupling 243

- multiple 241

- single 234 column internal 234 column side cooling 212 combined heat and power (CHP) 68

- generation 44 combustion 332 command-and-control 61f. company carbon balance 36 company initiative 23 compliance market 71 composite curve 193ff.

- hot and cold 204 compound indicator 171

c compressed air system 225 compressor 271

- axial 274

- centrifugal 272

- reciprocating 271 compressor discharge line 295 condensate 360f., 380 condensate recovery 298 condenser 238

condensing steam turbine cycle 207 convective dryer 250f.

- heat recovery 252

- operational improvement 251 cooling 335, 362

- melt crystallization 254 cooling tower 299f. cooling unit 376

cooling water (CW) 206, 357

- system 225, 299 corrosion

- insulation 295 'cradle-to-gate' approach 126 cross-pinch heat transfer 210 cryogenic expander 281 crystallization 253ff.

- energy efficiency 256

- evaporative 255

- freeze 256

cumulative energy demand (CED) 419, 435 d dash-for-gas 67 data collection 161ff. de-aerator 298 deasphalting 321 design 291

- alternative 177ff.

- aspect 383

- energy efficient 121ff. designated operational entity (DOE) 78 desorption

- carbon dioxide 396 diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI) 255 distillation 229

- basic principle 230

- control 231f.

- design of process 245

- damage of internal 232

- feed point 232

- feed preheating 235ff.

- fouling 232

- operating pressure 231

- operation 231

- process control 232

- purity of the product 231

- reactive 246

- sub-cooling of the reflux flow 232 distillation column 214, 236

- intermediate reboiler or condenser 238

- vapor recompression 236ff. distillation unit 212, 319 distributed control system (DCS) 150 distributing system 378

Dow 26

driving force plot (DFP) 215 dryer

- contact 250

- convective 250ff.

- energy efficiency 253

- spray 253 drying 250 DuPont 27

Earth Day 104 electric motor 287 electrical power 337, 356 electricity consumption 131 electricity generation 66 electrochemical unit (ECU) 50 emission certificate 38

- CO2 balance 38 emission reduction 79 emission trading (ET) 17 energy

- audit 100

- concept of quality 193

- consumption 6

- material balance 309

- organizational issue 339

- price 13

energy accumulation factor (EAF) 166 energy and waste cost (EWC) 164f. energy awareness 89ff.

- implementation 105

- program 100 energy balance 309f.

- analysis 312

- average 314

- basis 312

- calculation and approximation 311

- deviation 314

- standard 314 energy baseline 132f. energy conservation 305, 352 energy conservation program

- good practice 308

e energy conservation training 113 energy consumer 130 energy consuming equipment 135 energy consumption

- reduction 406

- specific 149

energy distribution 127ff., 336 energy efficiency 153, 354

- accountability 344

- benchmark 153

- check 156

- chemical industry 14

- corporative goal 344

- crystallization 256

- dryer 253

- environmental concern 347

- evolutionary organization 346

- membrane separation 257

- real-time monitor 153

- refinery 305ff.

energy efficiency program 325

- awareness 325

- communication 325

- leadership 342

- motivational work 325 energy efficient equipment 271ff. energy efficient refinery 305ff. energy efficient unit operation 223ff. energy efficient utility 351

- distribution 351ff.

- generation 351ff. energy exchange 352f. energy factor (EF) 171 energy indicator

- calculation 163 energy loss cascade 152f. energy management system 153 energy matrix 98ff.

energy measurement 310 energy mind map 107f. energy performance 338 energy reduction project 123ff. energy saving 133f., 224ff.

- good housekeeping 224

- maintenance 329f.

- operation 329

- scheduling 330

energy saving award program 114 energy supply 44 energy surplus 204 energy system 140 energy target

- setting 198

energy targeting 193ff. energy trade-off 200 energy unit 128

enhanced gas recovery (EGR) 411 enhanced oil recovery (EOR) 411 environmental sustainability 90 equipment 369

- check 135

- energy efficient 271ff.

- microstructured 264 equipment flowsheet

- operational flow diagram 169ff. ester

- emollient 434 evaporation 246

- multistage 247 evaporative crystallization 255 event 105

expander 281

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